The Randomness of Language Evolution

English is shaped by more than natural selection

Joshua Plotkin’s dive into the evolution of language began with clarity—and also a lack of it.

Today, if you wanted to talk about something that’s clear, you’d say that it has clarity. But if you were around in 1890, you would almost certainly have talked about its clearness.

Plotkin first noticed this linguistic change while playing with Google’s Ngram Viewer, a search engine that charts the frequencies of words across millions of books. The viewer shows that a century ago, clearness dominated clarity. Now the opposite is true, which is strange because clarity isn’t even a regular form. If you wanted to create a noun from clearclearness would be a more obvious choice. “Why would there be this big upswing in clarity?,” Plotkin wondered. “Is there a force promoting clarity in writing?”

It wasn’t clear. But as an evolutionary biologist, Plotkin knew how to find out.

The histories of linguistics and evolutionary biology have been braided together for as long as the latter has existed. Many of the earliest defenders of Darwinism were linguists who saw similarities between the evolution of languages and of species. Darwin himself wrote about these “curious parallels” in The Descent of Man. New words and grammatical rules are continually cropping up, fighting for existence against established forms, and sometimes driving those old forms extinct. “The survival … of certain favored words in the struggle for existence is natural selection,” Darwin wrote.

Darwin, Plotkin says, used the way language changes “to popularize his heretical theory and explain for a broad audience what natural selection means. The process wasn’t easy to observe in organisms, but it was easier to see in words.”

But natural selection is just one force of evolutionary change. Under its influence, genes become more (or less) common because their owners are more (or less) likely to survive and reproduce. But genes can also change in frequency for completely random reasons that have nothing to do with their owner’s health or strength—and everything to do with pure, dumb luck. That process is known as drift, and it took decades for evolutionary biologists to recognize that it’s just as important for evolution as natural selection.

Linguists are still behind. It’s easy to see how languages can change through drift, as people randomly pick up the words and constructions they overhear. But when Darwin wrote about evolving tongues, he said, “The better, the shorter, the easier forms are constantly gaining the upper hand, and they owe their success to their own inherent virtue.” That’s a view based purely on natural selection, and it persists. “For the most part, linguists today have a strict Darwinian outlook,” Plotkin says. “When they see a change, they think there must be a directional force behind it. But I propose that language change, maybe lots of it, is driven by random chance—by drift.”

To see whether that was true, he and his colleagues developed statistical tests that could distinguish between the influence of drift and of natural selection. They then applied these tests to several online repositories, such the Corpus of Historical American English—a digital collection of 400 million words, pulled out of 100,000 texts published over the past 200 years.

The team focused first on the past-tense forms of verbs, and found at least six cases where natural selection is clearly in effect. In some cases, the verbs were regularized, losing weird past forms in favor of more-predictable ones that end in –edWove, for example, gave way to weaved, while smelt lost ground to smelled. That’s not surprising: Many linguists have suggested that verbs tend to become more regular over time, perhaps because, like Darwin theorized, these forms are just easier to learn.

But Plotkin found just as many instances where selection drove verbs toward irregularity: Dived gave way to dovelighted to lit, waked to woke, and sneaked to snuck. Why? Perhaps because we like it when words sound alike, and we change our language to accommodate such rhymes. For example, dove began to replace dived at the same time that cars became popular, and drive/drove became common parts of English. Similarly, the move from quitted to quit coincided with the rise of split, which became much more widely used when it acquired a new meaning—to leave or depart. In both cases, changes in one irregular verb—driveor split—may have irregularized others. “We can’t definitively say that’s the reason, but it’s coincident,” Plotkin says.

“It gets you to think harder about the motivation for change,” says Salikoko Mufwene, from the University of Chicago. “The general claim is that there has been an evolution toward regularization, and they’re showing that this hasn’t always been the case. Now we need to think harder about when irregular forms are favored over regular variants.”

That is, if anything is favored at all. The team found that the changes that have befallen the vast majority of our verbs are entirely consistent with drift. You don’t need to invoke natural selection to explain why we say spilled instead of spiltburned instead of burnt, and knit instead of knitted.

In other cases, drift and natural selection work together to shape languages. For example, Plotkin’s team also looked at the rapid rise of do in the 16th century, when phrases like “You say not” quickly changed into “You do not say.” They concluded that at first, the word randomly drifted its way into questions, so that “Say you?” gradually became “Do you say?” Once it became common, natural selection started pushing it into new contexts like declarative sentences, perhaps because it was easier for people to use it consistently.

The team also analyzed a third and more obscure grammatical change called Jespersen’s Cycle. In Old English, spoken before the Norman Conquest, speakers would negate a verb by putting a not in front of it. In Middle English, spoken between the 11th and 15th centuries, the negatives would surround the verb as they do in modern French (“Je ne dis pas”). And in Early Modern English, spoken between the 15th and 17th centuries, the negative followed the verb—the Shakespearean “I say not.” Now, we’ve come full circle, back to “I don’t say.”

Jespersen’s Cycle exists in many unrelated languages. In French, for example, the formal “Je ne dis pas” is giving way to the colloquial “Je dis pas.”

Natural selection still explains Jespersen’s Cycle far better than drift does, according to Plotkin’s analysis. Perhaps it’s due to emphasis, he says. If one form is common, speakers could emphasize their disagreement by adding or subtracting words (“I don’t say that at all,” versus I don’t say that”). As the emphatic forms become more common, they lose their sting, and are themselves replaced.

These results are part of a wider trend where linguists are starting to use these massive online corpora to address long-standing puzzles in language change. “This is an excellent trend,” says Jennifer Culbertson, from the University of Edinburgh. “Linguists have uncovered many really fascinating cases of language change, but the explanations on offer sometimes read like just-so stories. Random processes are simply underappreciated, because we want to come up with interesting explanations.” But by considering drift, too, linguists could “focus our energies on providing interesting explanations where they are really warranted.”

What about the change from clearness to clarity, which set Plotkin onto this quest in the first place? He says that he’s found signs of natural selection’s hand, but that will have to wait for another publication. “There’s lots to be done,” he says. “This is just the beginning of an investigation, which need not stop at written texts. Spoken records are just as ready and ripe for scrutiny.”

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DO YOU KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORS?

Dohuk is the capital of Dohuk Governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan

Beautiful city with a mixed, Kurdish dominant population of perhaps 350,000…. The University of Dohuk has over 20,000 students….

Tell me you knew all this…. I didn’t….. I only know the many war images and bombed out cities we see here in the USA – We Americans have not been properly introduced to our neighbors.

Kurdish is completely unrelated to Turkish and Arabic, though it includes some loanwords from those languages. BUT if you’d like to learn some Kurdish – maybe this will help…..

and here…. is a fascinating story of the recent history of the Kurdish peoples….

The Impact of Placement Practices on English Language Learners

The Impact of Placement Practices on English Language Learners

Research Study funded by the U.S. Department of Education, 2006

Marlene Ryll, M.A.,M.B.A.

Freeman and Freeman (2002) identified three distinct subgroups of ELLs: newly arrived with adequate formal schooling, newly arrived with limited formal schooling, and long term English learners.  These subgroups require significantly differing approaches in instruction and vary extremely in terms of prior education, literacy, and English oral language proficiency.  But what happens when these students are placed together in one classroom with one teacher attempting to use “differentiated instruction” to maximize each student’s learning rate and academic success?  We contend that this effort is analogous to placing 20 students into one classroom who all need a credit in science, except that some need a credit in astronomy, others in biology, yet others in earth science.  Meanwhile, the teacher assigned to the class is certified in elementary science education and provided with state science standards for physics and requested to provide differentiated instruction such that all students will maximize their learning in the areas in which they need help while making progress toward achieving high scores in the standardized state science test in physics.

 

We decided to take a look at these three groups in terms of their characteristics and instructional needs, and identify some of the causes for the failure of our secondary schools to provide the kind of help that allows them to be successful academically and economically.  Our premise was simply that differentiated instruction cannot take place without differentiate placement when student characteristics are too varied to allow for successful implementation of such instructional strategies.

 

Table 1 summarizes some of the characteristics of these distinct ELL subgroups as identified by Fresno Unified School District, Office of Multilingual/Multicultural Education and Lenski, Ehlers-Zavala, Daniel and Sun-Irminger (2006). For discussion in this work, these three groups are classified as: Highly Literate New Immigrants (HLNI), Under Schooled New Immigrants (USNI), and Long Term Literacy English Proficient (LTLEP).

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RANGE: The Future in Language Learning Methodology

 

    Introduction

    The primary goal of all language learning methodology literature is to help teachers become better at what they do.  Better teachers help students learn a second language more efficiently (faster and easier) and more effectively (they do it better) while assuring that the learning process is a pleasant experience (they like learning).  Methodology refers to the practices and procedures used in teaching, which are generally based on theories of learning and an understanding of the nature of language.  Teachers just want to know what works.  Unfortunately, things are never as simple as they appear, and the best attempts at providing guidance have resulted in an excessive wealth of materials, all supported by research as promoting “the best” in curriculum and instructional design.  And although some authors insist they are providing a “more empirical footing” for the field (Nunan, 1998, p. 15), that empirical footing comfortably supports many approaches and methods.

    It is not enough to provide a menu of alternatives.  Successful language learning is measured in a variety of ways and includes mastering skills in listening comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, pronunciation, vocabulary acquisition, and grammar usage.  Each of these skills relies on potentially different cognitive skills which may warrant different teaching approaches or methodologies.  On another level, language learning methodology is connected to general principles of learning, and there is no strict consensus on precisely how learning occurs or even what constitutes knowledge (Rowland, 1999, p. 5).  To further complicate matters, methodologies are connected to philosophical perspectives that may focus on the learner, the teacher, the nature of language, the nature of learning, or a combination of these.  Beyond this, research is embedded in historical trends and cultural influences that affect research design and the interpretation of results.  The complex nature of language forces us to consider and apply developments from related fields of inquiry, including the biochemical processes of the brain, motivation theory, the nature of perception and reality, culture and meaning, systems theory, and evolution.  So while we attempt to develop the specialized area of linguistic research and apply what we can glean from qualitative and quantitative studies, we must recognize the dynamic web of interdependent disciplines which inform us and influence our search for teaching methodologies.

    We need an improved methodology which can address the diversity of learners and transfer knowledge regardless of the particular linguistic skill being taught.  It must be consistent with developments in related fields of inquiry and promote a comprehensive language learning philosophy, one that supports language learners in all environments.  Given the complexity of interacting considerations and impacting factors, is it possible to provide such a tool for thinking about and teaching language?  This paper purports to provide just such a new perspective, which we call Range.  Although used herein in a broader context and with a slightly expanded meaning, the term itself as well as its primacy in language learning was consistently referred to by Rod Ellis, whose studies focused on vocabulary acquisition and the understanding of word meanings.  Despite the fact that current language learning assumes the necessity of interaction and an appreciation for the “communicative” approach, Ellis tells us that “one of the conclusions based on research reported in previous chapters is that learners do not need to engage in social interaction in order to acquire the L2; they can benefit equally, and perhaps in some cases, to a greater extent by simply attending to non-interactive input.” (Ellis, 248).  If interaction is not the primary impetus for language learning and the development of meaning, what is?  We propose that the key to language learning is Range, whose definition (in vocabulary acquisition) was proposed by Mackey as “the number of samples or texts in which an item is to be found.” (Ellis 182).  The notion that Range is the principal force behind learning vocabulary is repeatedly reinforced and evidenced in research study after research study.  In some studies Ellis notes that both in ‘premodified and interactionally modified groups’ the measure of “range” was significantly related (positively) to acquisition scores. (104)  And again, “As might be expected, Range figures as a significant predictor in a number of analyses, often in conjunction with Frequency” (111)  Although we already know that repetition (frequency) plays a critical role in language learning, Range outdistances even Frequency.  In summing up, Ellis states related to the characteristics of input and interaction that were associated with incidental acquisition of word meaning:  “Only one factor – Range – figured in significant correlations with vocabulary acquisitions by both premodified and interactionally modified input groups.  Hearing words used in a variety of different contexts aids their acquisition.  Interestingly, Range emerges as a more important factor than word frequency” (108)  And again, “Range was also a strong predictor of follow-up test scores.” (105)  Ellis concludes with the following statement: “The most important factor contributing positively to the acquisition of word meaning was Range.” (112).  The question that needs to be addressed is why this is so.  Ellis provides a hint to the answer when he says, “”I have suggested that researchers adopt a broader view of interaction such as that afforded by sociocultural theory.  From this perspective, the key construct is that of scaffolding”…. (251)  We shall expand on this point and address the connection between Range and scaffolding further on.  For now, suffice to say that Range as we use it refers to the diversity (or variety) of presentations provided which contain the item to be learned.  Presentations can be types of sentences when we refer to vocabulary, or types of media when promoting the same discrete learning outcome, or types of activities used to develop a skill.  It is the VARIETY or DIVERSITY of presentations that maximizes target item learning efficiency, effectiveness, and maintains learner interest.  Range will allow for maximizing “comprehensible input” for the greatest variety of learners in any given learning environment.

    The basic and rather simple proposal of this paper is that Range is to language learning as complexity is to systems and evolution. It is where “learning” occurs.  The concept of Range can be applied at any level, it can direct specific activities in a particular learning mode such as reading or writing, it can direct the choice and variety of instructional methods such as group work versus teacher “input”, and it can direct the choice and variety of media such as computer based multimedia and paper and pencil exercises.  This paper will take the reader through a path of understanding based on current models and theories in the related fields of evolution, neural networks, computer dynamics, information systems, learning, and motivation.  It will connect Range to traditional and current methodologies in language learning, and to the critical commonalities in language learning (age, the affective domain, L1, metacognition, repetition, and multiple intelligences).  On the practical side, it will provide examples of how Range can be implemented in addressing each skill (reading, writing, etc…).  Hopefully, with an understanding of Range, teachers will be able to better appreciate and draw upon the potpourri of possibilities offered by the research and theories in applied linguistics, while feeling more empowered than ever before to engage in situational decision making (action research) regarding what they choose to do within their classrooms.

Review of Methodologies

    A brief overview of the history and definition of Language Learning Methodology is warranted.  Today’s focus on the learner has changed the officially promoted title of the field from Language Teaching to Language Learning, but both express concerns about how teachers influence language learning (acquisition) and both are part of applied linguistics.  A few statements are in order before we begin with the most often cited and reviewed methodologies.  When we review a current field of specialization (methodology), we use the lens of today’s perspective, current  technical terms (buzzwords), and make judgments and distinctions based on the categories of knowledge and research that have recently developed.  Language teaching and learning did not begin at a particular time that we can pinpoint with accuracy.  Linguistics was a word used already by Plato, despite the fact that we consider “modern linguistics” to have begun in the 17th century.  Our criticisms of past practices must be made with extreme caution, and the span of generations always ends up being too wide an area to cover with justice and depth, so we grossly gloss over the varying trends that did exist.  While “official” study in linguistics as a field unto itself may have begun in a particular decade, practitioners in various countries and from antiquity may have initiated and used many of the methods we consider “modern” and new.  Even our newest focuses, be they “communicative”, “learner-centered”, or “postmodern”, are NOT new.  All that we have done is created new systems to categorize different approaches based on newly created “fields of study”.  There really is “nothing new under the sun” beyond our classifying and re-ordering things into “models”.  Language teaching in antiquity had its own heroes, many of whom used the same “methods” based on the same underlying “ideas” we consider “modern approaches.”  Some had common sense or intuition, and some perhaps had experience on which to base their efforts.  What they did not have, and what most of our current researchers write about is “officially sanctified” approaches based on “scientific theories”.  These theories belong to the realm of “formal linguistics”, where the structure and process of language is studied.  But as we move into the future, we see that our most scientific theories, and the scientific approach itself, is in question.  As we continue to borrow from the many fields of study we have arbitrarily created, we see signs of the growing “complex” web of interactions among them, all of which point to an underlying deeper unity.  Leonardo da Vinci was a generalist, in more recent history we have promoted specialists in narrow academic fields.  It may take the reintegration of those many specialized fields of study to re-express what was known by some (like da Vinci) before we segmented knowledge into fields of specialty.  The growth of the internet and the exponential growth of interaction among researchers is leading us back to knowledge that has been presented to us for ages, albeit not under the guise of an academically sanctioned theory.  Information, knowledge and understanding evolve no less than biological systems over time, and they do so in a complex spiraling growth pattern which is reflected in the Fibonacci series and fractals.  We will simply rediscover (as we have done in physics) that the powerful oak tree truly exists within the seed.  To return to the ensuing historical accounts, note that there is no “true” beginning point, that each methodology in use overlaps with the one before and the one after, and that the methodologies we use today are mostly reinterpretations of earlier methods.  Methodologies today are essentially borrowed from the past with new labels and an expanding scope of application.  This is important to know because an understanding of Range and Complexity will allow us to borrow with freedom and license, and support theoretical study as well as teacher pragmatism.

      Most historical accounts of LL Methodology begin with a look at the Grammar-Translation Method, credited to the Germans from the mid 1800’s through the mid 1900’s.  In those years, education was primarily geared toward the upper classes, who studied classical languages such as Latin and Greek, and focused on reading literature (Richards & Rodgers, p. 3)  Since these languages were not in common use, students studied grammar rules and vocabulary, translated texts and wrote sentences or essays in the targeted language.  The end purpose of this teaching was to promote a certain mental discipline through memorization, develop analytical ability in comparing underlying rules of the L1 and L2, and contribute to what was considered part of the rigorous academic nature of a “good education”.  To the degree that memorization (knowledge) forms the base of Bloom’s Taxonomy and that translation forces pattern recognition (analysis), and that such ability demonstrates some problem solving skill (application), the Grammar-Translation Method contributed to developing intellectual capacity. If the more complex behavior of synthesis requires a hierarchical approach to teaching and learning, then this approach did successfully address the first steps needed for attainment of higher order thinking skills.  Given that the method was teacher oriented and relied on repetitious routines, it did not address the affective domain, or take the learner’s perceived needs into account.  There are still occasions when the Grammar-Translation Method may be the most appropriate instructional technique, such as when reading is the primary goal, when there are few resources available, and when Adult Learners desire to focus on grammar rules.  To the degree that this method assumes a “real” world out there, that knowledge is organized, and that learners have to recall information, it is part of the cognitivist orientation toward learning.  To the degree that it focuses on grammar and rules, it belongs to the structuralist tradition pioneered by Saussure.  And finally, to the degree that this method highlights the historical and comparative aspects of language it belongs within the framework of diachronic and historical linguistics,   Although there are positive aspects to using this method, it fails to address individual learner differences in motivation, ability, learning style or preference.  In terms of linguistics, it focuses on translation (language comparison) and grammar (language structure) rather than discourse (interaction) and communication (meaning).  A few learners enjoy the challenge of successfully mastering requirements, but most recall this type of language study with distaste and their stories of success sound like the stories of survivors of war.  In summary, Grammar Translation was neither efficient (it was the opposite of fast and easy), nor effective (fluency was not even the goal), nor pleasant (learning was not meant to be enjoyable).

    Political realities, shifting national borders, and increased travel created the need to communicate in foreign languages around the turn of the century.  This allowed for the acceptance of ideas in Language Teaching methodology  which had been espoused by earlier reformers, of whom the best known was  Francois Gouin.  Gouin focused on naturalistic principles of language learning, namely, observing how children learn languages. (Richards & Rodgers, 9).  This resulted in the development of the Natural Method, also known as the Direct Method, which was successfully applied in schools by Berlitz and Sauveur. The Direct Method  was developed in opposition to the Grammar Translation Method and had already been used, but was not popular until other reformers joined in publishing and promoting a more “natural” way.  Using the principles of child L1 acquisition, the Direct Method consisted of teacher directed conversation in the target language, the use of demonstration and mime, and an inductive approach to grammar learning.  While this method employed effective techniques, it depended heavily on teacher fluency in the L2, demanded intense individual interaction that could not be realized in larger classrooms, and lacked a distinct connection to principles in applied linguistic theory or a sound methodological base (R&R, 11).  In American society, there was less perceived need for verbal fluency than what this method promoted, and hence, within decades, this method’s popularity declined.  Although communicative, the Direct Method was teacher directed and failed to take into account learner differences.  It worked better for lower levels of proficiency and laid the groundwork for TPR (Total Physical Response), a still popular and effective approach to introducing vocabulary at the early L2 learning stages.  To the degree that this method assumes that learners “build” their knowledge with limited explanation (translation), it adopts a constructivist approach to learning.  To the degree that it focuses on language use in the “here and now”, it is synchronic although it does not belong within Saussure’structuralist framework of linguistics.   In summary, however, the Direct Method was simply not efficient (never allowing for L1 use can be counterproductive), not effective (complete fluency may require “understanding” of structures), and not necessarily pleasant (complete immersion isn’t comfortable).

    Recognizing the problems with the Direct Method, British applied linguists Palmer and Hornsby developed the theoretical foundations for an offshoot of this method called the Oral Approach, alternatively known as Situational Teaching.  This methodology was similar to the Direct Method in that it used speaking activity to teach language, it differed significantly, however, in that it followed a structural system which provided direction and order for teaching and learning activities.  This development of “content” and structure came by means of research in linguistics which created principles for vocabulary selection and grammar acquisition via “sentence structure”.  The difference between the Direct Method and the Oral Approach are not too different from those between proponents of “immersion” (total) and ESL classroom instruction.  In each case the first allows for more free practice and exposure, albeit at the expense of content control, while proponents of the second believe that control and structure of content increase learning.  The British structuralists promoted “situationalism” in which oral practice was linked to the situations in which such speech could be practically used. (R&R, 35).  The Oral Approach already relied on components of behaviorism and viewed language learning as “habit formation”, practicing progressively more difficult sentences until enough knowledge of the L2 had been acquired to allow for freer form expressions initiated by the student.  The focus on situational learning expressed an interest in the cultural context and as with the Direct Method, the Oral Approach uses an inductive approach to learning grammar.  This method and variations thereof are still widely used, in part because it bridges aspects of earlier and current language teaching philosophies.  Focusing on speech within given situations, this method resembles the “communicative” approach used today, and yet incorporates the practice and repetition which formed the bedrock of the audio-lingual approach.  By now we can see the trends in the evolution of language learning and teaching methodologies.  The pattern is repeated everywhere in evolution.  Each trend (thesis) creates an opposing trend (antithesis), which highlights the trend’s deficiencies and promotes an alternative approach.  A new thesis emerges, which borrows some from each trend and becomes a new trend (thesis), and is really a synthesis of what was before.  These pendulum swings create new adherents of “schools of thought”, new terms, and in this oppositional method, slowly expand and “complexify” the field of research.  Evolution and learning exemplify this Hegelian dialectic. Increasing complexity is driven by this dialectic, and increasing complexity (Range in LL) drives adaptation and growth (learning).  Although the Oral Approach was both effective and efficient, and not unpleasant, the evolution of Methodology began to incorporate elements of research in Psychology, which focused on more efficient learning, based on behavioral aspects of conditioning.

    Politics influenced the development of the Audiolingual Method.  World War II created a need for Americans to develop rapid fluency in foreign languages, and the U.S. Government took it upon itself to provide funding for language research and training.  These programs focused on conversation rather than reading or grammar, tenets of previous methods.  Structural linguistics , using contrastive analysis to establish a syllabus, combined intensive imitation and repetition (the result of behaviorist techniques borrowed from the field psychology based on the stimulus-response nature of learning), to form the body of audiolingualist teaching methods.   Contrastive analysis, promoted by Fries and Lado, looks at different languages to see which elements they have in common and which differ, in order to assess where learners will have difficulties based on transfer. Structural linguistics emphasized the oral nature of language and sought to identify sentence structure, based on phonetic, phonemic, and morphological entities of increasing sequential difficulty. (R&R, 49)  In using this methodology, learners repeat simple phrases until they have been reinforced in memory, using dialogues as the basis for developing contextual, situational, and cultural understanding.  The emphasis here is on proficiency, not grammar or literature, and instruction is teacher centered, not learner driven.  Although, as with each earlier methodology, this method created a backlash which reasserted the cognitive versus habit-formation nature of language, it’s efficiency and effectiveness warranted its continued use in the classroom.  The decline of this approach’s popularity in the late sixties was influenced by two serious criticisms.  First, behaviorism and Skinner fell dramatically out of favor, in part based on fears of how his theories could be used against various ethnic groups, a lesson learned from the political realities in Europe.  Secondly, this method dismissed affective learner aspects as irrelevant, guaranteeing success in learning only for the most self motivated of students.  Students did not tell war stories, they simply got bored to death.

    The sixties was a time of radical change in many spheres, and past practices in most fields were challenged, primarily by a new orientation in education which was learner-centered and humanistic.  As language teaching and learning evolved, it became wedded to principles and practices coming from psychology.  In psychology and education, the ideas of Carl Rogers, Piaget, and Vygotsky took hold; in linguistic theory, the ideas of Noam Chomsky reversed the notion of habit-formation back toward a cognitive approach.  While Chomsky insisted that children have an innate ability for languages, which supports an underlying basic Universal Grammar, Piaget linked cognitive development to underlying biological development, Vygotsky focused on the social interaction aspects such as scaffolding, and Carl Rogers promoted the underlying self-worth of the learner (humanism)     These authors, along with Dewey and Bruner, form the foundation of constructivism in education.  Communicative Language Teaching incorporates, therefore, a focus on meaning and the learner’s interests and abilities, rather than just focusing on language in abstract or the teacher’s role as instructor.  It was not the product of one specific reformer, but the result of influences by researchers in different countries and fields, including British functional linguists Firth, Halliday, and Wilkins, American sociolinguists Hymes, Gumperz, and Lamperz, and philosophers Austin and Searle. (R&R, 64-65)   It highlights the functional, interactional nature of language, and the learner’s desire for meaning in communication.  The syllabus is of central concern in this methodology, and a variety of language theories are compatible with it, which include both cognitive and behavioral aspects. (R&R, 73)  The focus of this methodology is creating “communicative competence”, and while practice involves repetition and imitation, it takes place within the context of natural interaction, and includes both structural and functional aspects of language.  Communicative Language Teaching is more of an approach to teaching than a strict methodology and embraces habit formation, grammar instruction, and translation, all under the umbrella of developing communication ability.  The orientation toward communication and the emphasis on the learner’s desire for “meaning” sets this method up to be a more pleasant means of acquiring language fluency, since it relies on learner motivation and attempts to create environments where learners will be motivated by their desire to understand and to be understood.  Communicative Language Teaching empowers the learner, promotes social interaction, and moves the teacher into a facilitator role.

    The historical evolution of methodologies (dialectic), coupled with new developments in other fields, is now noticeably creating an ever widening array of acceptable activities for classroom instruction. Thus the co-evolution of systems of inquiry (fields of knowledge) is creating a growing complexity in the structure and design of language education.  This development, while creating a wider net of possible solutions and strategies, does not lend itself as well to the analysis and control traditionally advocated by a strict science.  Becoming more inclusive in theory results in a loss of precision.  Recognizing that learning involves the whole body and not just the brain, and that communication is expressed through and reinforced by the body’s expressions led the way for the reintegration of body and mind in the work of James Asher, the psychologist who introduced Total Physical Response.  This methodology traces its roots back to teaching procedures espoused as early as 1925 by Harold and Dorothy Palmer. (R&R, 87)  Although rooted in theories of comprehension and affective factors in learning, and supported by language theorists such as Krashen, it fails to include some levels of language learning and has an inadequate base in the theory of language.  If methodology is in some sense a broader or more inclusive term than technique, then TPR is more of a technique than a strict methodology and works best with learners at the early stages of Second Language acquisition.  Its premise is that the learning of a second language is similar to that of learning the first language, that comprehension precedes usage, and that learner stress should be minimized, particularly in the early stages of language learning.  Although considering affective factors, it is teacher directed and makes use of habit formation, the underlying principle of the audiolingual method. It supports Vygotsky’s scaffolding strategy by creating support for the learner through feedback and prompting by the teacher.   TPR assumes a a nativist stance in that it presupposes a natural or innate language learning ability.  Learners carry out simple commands, repeat and imitate teacher initiated words, sentences, and actions.  The focus, based on child language learning, is on learning through listening, then imitating, then initiating original expressions.  The end goal is developing speaking skills, and grammar is taught inductively.  It is constructive in that it assumes the teacher merely sets the stage for learning, “natural” both because it is based on the way an infant learns language and because it allows language to develop at the learner’s pace.  In reality, TPR is mostly a valid set of teaching practices that effectively supplements rather than replaces any other methodology.  As we have seen with each preceding methodology, TPR reinvents and expands upon earlier theories, while incorporating aspects of other methodologies.  TPR is effective and efficient for early language learning, but much less so as skill increases.  While it purports to minimize affective filters, this is more true for kinesthetic learners than any other learning style.  Although TPR belongs to the “nativist” family and the “natural approach” to language learning (innate bio-program much like the LAD), it uses primarily  behaviorist (stimulus-response) teaching pedagogy to stimulate comprehension.

    The Silent Way was developed by Caleb Gattegno, who insisted it was not a method, but simply a common sense approach to learning.  His background was originally in mathematics, and his method of teaching focused on learner self-discovery.  As a scientist, Gattegno embraced evolution and as a philosopher, he explored spiritual truths in Eastern traditions.  His own desire to learn and to teach others how to learn formed the underlying philosophy of this “non-method”.  Just as the borders between science and spirituality began overlapping in second half of this century, the synthesis of these opposing realms began expressing itself in an ever increasing and unapologetic manner in language teaching methodology.  The Silent Way included principles from structural linguistics, going from easier to more difficult sequences and sentence structures.  It assumed that learners must address learning language in the same open, self-discovering, and self-directed manner they learned as a child.  This method minimized the directive role of the teacher, maximized learner enjoyment and responsibility, and assumed that evolution in learning is a natural and ongoing process which simply needs to be encouraged through the acceptance of the learner’s desire for self-fulfillment through self-awareness, which leads to discovery and growth.  As with evolution, the learner is provided with a variety of tools to address levels of sensory input, including visual, oral, and physical stimuli.  The study of linguistics now imported ideas from physics and mathematics, and these disciplines will continue to increasingly affect teaching and learning methodologies.  Originally a physicist and influenced by the works of many who were seeing connections between discoveries in physics and theology, Gattegno emphasized the inner transformation that occurs in learning, and placed a high priority on involving learners in the process and in an awareness of the process rather than focusing on outcomes.  He believed that the inner self already has the knowledge of how to learn language since it had done it once before in learning the first language, and that by allowing learners to become aware of the natural process they once employed, they would apply the same knowledge to learning a new language.  It incorporates aspects of complexity, introducing materials on various levels, ie. written and oral, and emphasizes the sound (melody) of language.  It introduces the most functional vocabulary first (color coded and on a chart), so learners may begin exploring usage quickly to communicate.  In this sense, the method is, at least initially, very controlled in terms of activity and materials, which include colored wooden rods and word charts.   The teacher is guided by what the student needs to learn, which is prescribed by the student.  Correction is indirect via feedback on the nature of the language and the area of the error, grammar is learned inductively, and practice provides for the internalization (automaticity) of what has been learned.  The Silent Way is more of an approach based on  a philosophy which places learning above teaching, than a method, if method allows for no contradiction and must be procedural.  Its goal is to develop an increasing awareness within the learner of their own learning processes and inner knowledge, by using very distinct tools that minimize the teacher’s need to explain and “teach”, while relying on the learner’s problem solving skills and natural drive to learn (evolve).

    The cycle of evolution in research and the increasing overlapping and complexification of fields of study led to Community Language Learning, whose founder, Fr. Charles Curran, came from the field of psychology.  This method is humanistic in approach, recognizing the interactive nature of learning, and the primacy of the learner.  It borrows from previous methodologies which concern themselves with the “whole person” (The Silent Way), and derives its underlying philosophy from the work of Carl Rogers, who developed client-centered therapy and was influenced both by his early training in theology and by John Dewey.   Community Language Learning promotes group interaction, which became popular as a means of therapy in the 70’s and 80’s, and rests on ideas about learner’s “self-actualization“, a term initially promoted by Abraham Maslow and Erich Fromm, and embraced by Rogers.  The teacher is now more than just a facilitator, he/she is a counselor, purposely working on diminishing learners’ fears and expressing understanding and concern, while allowing the learner to discover solutions to problems.  It assumes that learning is a creative process in which equals engage to promote well-being and growth, and that the foremost need is to remove “fear” (the affective filter) which hinders cognitive development.  This idea is congruent with Krashen’s ideas in language learning.   It views language learning as a social process, and the teacher’s function is to create an atmosphere of warmth and understanding which is conducive to developing security and the willingness to take risk. (R&R 122)  This methodology does not precisely address an underlying theory of language, but is framed around a counseling theory and a theory of the learner.  Most syllabi are topic based, and learning progresses either structurally, with an introduction to grammar and phonetics, or less systematically, with instructional points developed as a result of classroom interaction.  Textbooks may be used, but are not a necessary component of this methodology. (R&R, 123)  Both Gattegno’s Silent Way and Curran’s Community Learning continue to have enthusiastic adherents, however, neither has been widely adopted in school systems, in part because both depend more on a teaching personality and style than on any, particularly well defined technique, and both are based more on the general learning atmosphere conducive to learner participation than on studies related to nature of language.

    Finally, in the late 1970’s, Krashen (an applied linguist) and Terrell (a practicing teacher) joined forces and combined everything that they had learned from all previous methodologies, buffered it with new linguistic concepts proposed by Chomsky, and expanding on the Direct Method, introduced The Natural Approach.  The Natural Approach borrows from Curran by insisting that the affective filter must be taken into consideration for learners to be willing to engage in learning, and that meaning is central to communication acts.  It borrows from the Gattegno by providing for learner initiated speaking rather than forcing output, especially early on in language learning, as well as by promoting the use of visual aids and hands-on activities, and by engaging the learner in self directed problem solving (negotiation of meaning in interaction).  It also borrows from and promotes Asher’s concepts by utilizing mime and action routines, especially during the beginning stages of learning.  The Natural Approach, like its predecessor, The Oral Approach, is structural, situational (topic driven), and communicative (group activities).  And like the Direct Method, The Natural Approach insists it conforms to the “natural” way that language is successfully learned by children, although it provides greater variety and less repetitious routines than its predecessor.  Although this method proposes to be in contrast to the Audiolingual Method, it also views language learning as the mastery of structures by stages (R&R, 130).  And while insisting that grammar need not be taught directly, this method does borrow from the earliest Grammar-translation Method by providing two levels of learning called acquisition and learning, the latter being the sole ability of adults, for whom grammar instruction can be helpful.  In addition to borrowing from previous methodologies, Krashen and Terrell adapted notions from Piaget and Vygotsky, by creating the idea of the input hypothesis, which is analogous to the zone of proximal development.  Next is a very brief overview of this method’s basic ideas.  Language competence is directed in two distinct ways, through acquisition and/or learning.  Acquiring a language is what children appear to do naturally (perhaps because we simply don’t quite understand how they do it), without regard to structures and grammar, while learning is what adults can do, by bringing their problem solving ability and previous knowledge into play and consciously examining the rules underlying a language (the part of language learning we do understand).  The conscious learning of adults takes place through “monitoring” their expressions and self-correcting based on the known rules.  Since there is a natural, universal order to structures and their acquisition (Chomsky‘s LAD and UG), learners progress through stages which can be predicted regardless of their L1.  Emotional states are critical to receptivity of instruction (Rogers and Curran), and the affective filter must be lowered for language learning to occur.  The teacher is responsible for helping create and open, warm environment.  Input must fall within the zone of proximal development, which means learning cannot take place unless it is “comprehensible input”.  This method addresses the nature of the learner, the interactive nature of language, the situation, and the nature of language and language learning.  It allows for variety and spontaneity in syllabus and activity selection, for teacher and learner responsibility and influence, and promotes a flexible system rooted in both linguistic and learning theories.  It is a system resulting from the evolution of methodologies and research in many fields, and allowing for the evolution (learning) of language through a guided complexity which balances chaos (too many possibilities and too little control) and order (limited possibilities excessively controlled).  This Method has been attacked by those, like Swain, who insist “production” or “output” is required as well as comprehensible input, and by others who disagree with the distinction between acquisition and learning, and by those who insist on a higher priority for grammar instruction.  Some have even argued against the necessity of comprehensible input.  The Natural Method belongs to cognitivist, connectionist, and constructivist frameworks, depending on which aspect we look at, and refers to itself as a comprehension-driven methodology with a communicative view of language.  Although Krashen has been criticized by both sides (rational scientists seeking stricter research based guidelines and post-modernists seeking complete learner freedom), his Natural Method has been both popular and successful.

    Studies in other fields of research had been ongoing during the evolution of Language Learning Methodologies.  Much of what was learned in other arenas eventually was incorporated in the framework of methodologies and specific linguistic research.  Humanism brought the learner to center stage, and with it, came studies into the role of affective (emotional) aspects, along with interest in the connections between the mind and body.  The Unconscious was seen as a resource for conscious knowledge, and environmental and sensory stimuli were known to impact on the brain’s chemistry and resulting thought.  Neural patterns and their interconnectivity with visual, auditory and physical stimuli resulted in parallel processing of information (simultaneously), all of which influenced learning.  The emotions were not just stimulated by  pleasant interpersonal situations, but were seen to be highly receptive to inputs from music and art.  Building primarily on the receptivity of learners to suggestion (hypnosis) and the phenomenal impact of rhythm and music on learning, Bulgarian psychiatrist Lozanov introduced yet another approach to language learning which focused on the need to remove impediments to learning while maximizing unconscious influences. (R&R, 142)  Although its initial founder did not promote a particular theory of language, current research into language does indicate a strong rhythmic pattern underlying languages, and studies of learning had historically connected language and music, a successful pedagogical technique in teaching nursery rhymes to children.  Suggestopedia promotes the primacy of vocabulary and the act of communication, using intonation, rhythm, a musical background, and drama to encourage language competence.  Unlike previous approaches, this method insists on the teacher’s role as an authority figure, recognizing that learners must depend on and trust the superior knowledge and ability residing within the instructor in order to be receptive to his/her direction.  This is reminiscent to psycho-therapy, where the counselee seeks help from one who is more knowledgeable in solving problems.  The choice of music is strictly limited to classical music, which has been known to stimulate neural connections in pre-born infants, and lately been indicated in higher resulting mathematical ability.  Class size is limited and homogeneous, with learners sitting in circles, activities include role playing, memorization and dialogue, while materials are comprised of texts and audio-tapes.  Central to this approach is the need for learners to “relax” and allow themselves to be overtaken by teacher and environment, in a manner that minimizes resistance to the learning process.  Critics of this method resist the need for intensive teacher training by master teachers, and the strict adherence to only Lozamov’s techniques.  While this method has been sometimes labeled a “pseudo-science”, it has been highly successful, and more recent research has supported its basic tenets.

    Labels can be confusing and history is the story of what we choose to emphasize and what we choose to forget (not to mention whom we credit or blame).  Have we addressed the methodologies that were most popular, most effective, or most in line with current ideas?  Certainly we have not included all of them, and while we included some that were neither popular nor strictly “methodologies”, we omitted others of equal import.  These include the “Reading Method”, which focused on language learning for the purposes of scientific or graduate study, where discourse in the target language is not emphasized.   As its title indicates, it provided heavy emphasis on reading materials, with a graduated difficulty level in vocabulary and grammatical structures.  For this method, translation is acceptable, and the goal is to create rapid reading comprehension.  We also omitted some current methodologies, including  Project Based Language Learning, which focuses on language development through group activities.  This method is community oriented, and promotes social interaction with the purpose of accomplishing meaningful, common goals.  It is in line with current ideas about constructivism and connectionism, and highlights teamwork and negotiation of meaning through collaborative efforts, while allowing for creative applications of multiple intelligences.  It was developed in line with Goals 2000 and the recognition of the importance of skills and workplace competencies in the emerging economy. And lastly, I mention Theme and Task based methodologies, which emphasize learner interests and needs, while incorporating situational contingencies and allowing for  more eclectic selection of materials and techniques.  These newer frameworks combine ideas about systems design,  affective learner variables, feedback (metacognition – focus on form), and  approach language teaching in a holistic manner, whereby teachers and students together determine goals and needs and determine what tasks and themes are most conducive to reaching the learning-instructional goal.  The latest discoveries in many fields preclude the proposal and any new methodologies which are “tight-knit”, systematic, or grounded in defined certainties about language acquisition or ideal techniques to the exclusion of any other techniques.  This is in part because we are finally moving away from the pre-eminence of the scientific method and our understanding of the nature of learning and development is changing.  We are moving from static toward dynamic models which are holistic, integrative, and fluid.  As we recognize the dynamic and integrated nature of all that is, we are forced to be very careful about prescriptive conclusions drawn based on the observations made using the scientific research models of the past.  Each development in the evolution of knowledge about language learning and all other fields has increased compflexification of each field, and noted  the relatively seamless interwoven nature of all life and learning.  We are losing the ability to “define” things as they are or to prescribe things as they “should be” in an “ideal” situation. Our perspectives are changing in an evolutionary manner, resulting in a “paradigm shift”  in all fields of study.  It is this paradigm shift which has precipitated the rise of “communicative language teaching” and  driven education towards learner autonomy, integrated curriculum, authentic assessment, and a focus on “process” rather than “products”.  SLA is impacted by this paradigm shift as well, and many pragmatic, situational, and eclectic styles have evolved as a result.  Many of these new styles and methodologies incorrectly focus on completely self-directed or fragmented learning and misinterpret the underlying implications of complexity.  Before randomly or pragmatically choosing any approach, it is important to look at the foundation and progression of the discoveries that have led us into the direction of the new paradigm, for although the new ideas have a certain “fuzziness”, they present a distinct and cohesive pattern, which is vital in choosing the most appropriate “patterns” for teaching and learning languages.

Krashen Versus Vygotsky

Many Second Language Theorists have equated Krashen’s Comprehensible Input Theory (I+1) with Vygotsky’s “Zone of Proximal Development. “.  Dunn and Lantolf contest this identification and maintain that the theories are not only not “unrelatable, but also… rooted in incommensurable discourses” (p. 411).  Incommensurable, in their use, means having virtually nothing in common, being based on differing constructs or worldviews.  What is proposed here, however, is that Dunn and Lantolf are mistaken, since they are looking at these theories from a perspective that assumes these concepts are working at the same level, whereas they are reflections of each other, the one (I+1) being a lower level (micro/subcomponent) than the realm in which Vygotsky’s concept operates (macro level).  Beyond this, it is maintained that Dunn and Lantolf have attempted to negate comparability by debating the impact of “learning” in each theory, without applying the definitions of these words, as used by the original authors.  Had they used the definitions of the authors, they would have realized that the words denote different ideas, and are not talking about the same thing.  It is Krashen’s term “acquisition” that most closely approximates the meaning of Vygotsky’s “learning”, and a comparison of these two terms as used by the authors does reflect a parallelism.

 

Krashen’s basic construct “I+1 is defined as I, which is the Second Language learner’s current level of (acquired) competence, and +1, which is the next phase of acquisition which contains aspects of the language which the learner is about to acquire along the axis of a “natural order” or developmental progression.  According to Krashen, learners acquire language by understanding language that contains elements of I+1, which they do through engaging in interaction, most specifically, hearing or reading, with the help of the surrounding ‘context’.  Although Krashen does not focus on the need for mutual interaction in an ‘external’ manner (learners are not required to talk until they are ready to do so, especially at the early stages), he does maintain that acquisition occurs best in a natural exposure setting, where learners engage in ‘seeking meaning’ through interaction.  In fact, he has been accused by SLA authors of promoting the idea that natural exposure (interaction in L2) is superior to classroom instruction in promoting language proficiency.  The meaning seeking involves mutuality between the learner and native L2 speaker (or other L2 learners), and an ‘intrapsychic’ process which involves the learner’s inner abilities.  The actual process of SLA (Second Language Acquisition) is NOT amenable to scientific analysis, since it does not occur on a ‘conscious’ level.  Learning, according to Krashen’s definition, is knowing ‘about’ language, that is, grammar rules and related concepts.  Formal learning, or knowledge about grammatical structures does not contribute to SLA, although it helps learners “monitor” their interlanguage, or level of proficiency and correctness.

 

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development is a construct that identifies the learner’s potentiality for all learning.  It is defined as the “the distance between the actual developmental level and the level of potential development” (p. 415) which is reached through collaboration with those who are above the learner’s level of knowledge or capability.  Vygotsky, according to Dunn and Lantolf, believes that “children develop only to the extent that they are taught” (p. 419).  His theory is used to conclude that children who are exposed to reading at an early age and to literacy activities, begin school with a higher IQ.  Despite IQ, however, the child may have a greater or lesser ‘zone of proximal development’.  Learning occurs through “meaning making” in a collaborative process, whereby the learner “borrows the knowledge and consciousness of the tutor to enter a language”. (p. 420)   Learning leads development.

 

Dunn and Lantolf insist that Krashen’s theory is incommensurable with Vygotsky’s because it belongs to the “scientific tradition” begun by Saussure, who “laid the foundation for the modern science of linguistics”. (p. 424) Vygotsky, they maintain espoused a “romantic-science view of mental behavior” (p. 428), which allows for a ‘richness’ which Krashen denies.  The authors accuse Krashen of “reducing complex phenomena to basic elements and constructing abstract schema to explain its object of study”. (p.428) Within the field of SLA, however, Krashen is accused of precisely the opposite.  He is seen as a non-scientific author who fails to clearly define his terms, and whose theory is founded on psychological workings that are not measurable.  He has been taken to task repeatedly for insisting that language acquisition processes can’t be broken down to purely ‘external’ factors, and for using an immeasurable (i) plus another vague immeasurable (I+1) to represent what should be a scientific theory.  Thus, they accuse, his is not a theory at all, but a romantic idea founded on complex psychological phenomena.  To the degree that SLA is a struggling new field of inquiry attempting to legitimize itself within the sciences as worthy of study, it is understandable that early authors attempted to phrase their writing in scientific terminology, lending legitimacy to a field of inquiry that defies true dissection.  In this respect Psychology and Sociology and Development are no different; as they emerged as fields of study, various authors provided legitimacy of inquiry by encasing the concepts in scientific jargon, coupled with attempts at measurement.  Beyond this lies that fact that Vygotsky’s idea is a ‘macro’ level idea, namely it encompasses all of learning and growth, which makes it impossible to completely decipher components as exclusive items.  Krashen’s idea, which is a subset of Vygotsky’s, relates only to language acquisition, that is, the production of fluent speech.  This narrowing of subject matter, is much more amenable to descriptive measures and analytic type discourse.

 

Dunn and Lantolf’s contention that Vygotsky relies on a “fundamentally human process of meaning making in collaborative activity with other members of the culture” (p.420), while Krashen believes that “whether the person engages other individuals in linguistic interaction is more or less irrevelant” (p. 423) is a misrepresentation of both.  While learning (for Vygotsky) is collaborative, the end result is as much the possession of the learner, as is Krashen’s acquisition.  Both focus on “meaning making through interaction”, the difference being that in studying components of early language acquisition, Krashen recognizes that the learner has very little knowledge in order to begin communicating verbally in the L2.  This recognition is precisely the same as that proposed in learning (by Vygotsky) for young children, where language “entails the creation of the very tools used to make meaning”. (p. 427)  The authors refer back to Krashen’s influence by Chomsky, whose concepts were affected by Saussure, resulting in the “ideal speaker/hearer, in which all human beings possess the same abstract linguistic knowledge or universal grammar”. (p. 425)  While they accuse Chomsky and Krashen of hard scientific bent, they admit that Chomsky “acknowledged that such idealizations are not real-world phenomena but assumptions necessary for theory construction”. (p. 425)  In Western civilization, in order to be taken seriously in academic circles, it is necessary to present new thought in terms of theory and the rational, scientific-inquiry model.  This attempt has Krashen doing exactly what Vygotsky thinks he should be doing, since, according to Vygotsky,  “mental activity is the consequence of the dialectic interaction between natural and cultural/historical forces”. (p. 426)

 

Dunn and Lantolf indicate that these theories are incompatible because Vygotsky insists “on the dialectic unity of learning-and-development” while Krashen maintains “a clear separatist position on learning and development (i.e. acquisition)”. (p.422)  The authors are equating the wrong terms.  Krashen’s definition of learning is “the formal rules of the language, i.e. grammar rules”.  This is not the learning Vygotsky is speaking about; rather, Krashen’s concept of ‘acquisition’ is the term to equate with Vygotsky’s ‘learning’.  Krashen’s term ‘acquisition’ is not the same as Vygotsky’s ‘development’, as the authors imply.  Acquisition is the end result of a process (language fluency) and cannot be equated to the whole of developmental processes.  Just as Vygotsky’s ‘learning’ occurs as a dialectic exchange between members of a society with differing levels of knowledge, Krashen’s ‘acquisition’ occurs as a dialectic exchange between members of society with differing levels of knowledge engaged in meaning making.   Dunn and Lantolf insist that “for Krashen, an individual’s linguistic future is certain; for Vygotsky, the future is open, uncertain and depends on the material and interactional (i.e. cultural and historical) circumstances in which the individual is situated”. (p. 422)  To the degree that language itself evolves through historical-cultural changes, Krashen’s “linguistic future” for an individual is also uncertain and changes as the meanings of words change.  But to the degree that Krashen is talking about acquiring a specific language, which has set constructs and syntax/grammar, it is as fixed as Vygotsky’s ‘learning’ would be when speaking of a child learning to put together a predefined product (toy).  Since they are engaged in different levels (macro vs. micro application), there cannot be ‘identical’ transfer of terms and definitions, only a general equating of concepts.  When we speak of making something, we refer to that something as an open-ended potential product.  But when we apply the term ‘making’ to ‘making a giraffe’, the giraffe is culturally predetermined as a specifically defined entity, as is Krashen’s ‘language’.  The term ‘making’ is, however, the same and implies a similar process.  Finally, the authors state that for Vygotsky “specifically human forms of mental activity are not processes that occur invisibly inside someone’s head but are instead the activity of socio-historically constituted people engaged in the historically situated activity of living”. (427)  This is a poor attempt to create opposition between Krashen and Vygotsky, for while Krashen does state that acquisition occurs as a mental process (meaning making) which cannot be seen, it occurs through an interactional process that occurs within a socio-historical context of people engaged in the historically situated activity of living.  Precisely the invisible, mental activity of ‘making meaning’ reflects the ‘unscientific’ and ‘romantic’ side of Krashen’s SLA process.  While Vygotsky’s ‘focus’ is socio-cultural and Krashen’s ‘focus’ is on the individual learner, again this reflects the move from one level (learning in general throughout society) to another (specific ‘learning’ of a particular, defined item).  Krashen and Vygotsky are looking through the same lens, but each is looking from a different angle at a different aspect of the same basic process.  I would venture to guess that Krashen himself would agree to having borrowed from Vygotsky in the creation of his I+1 concept, particularly since he himself was so thoroughly exposed to and knowledgeable of Vygotsky’s theories throughout his career as an educator.

 

To summarize, Dunn and Lantolf are making distinctions and implying incommensurability based on false comparisons and presumptions about both Vygotsky and Krashen.  While their goal may be to uphold a less-than-scientific tradition that is more wholistic, it does not warrant speculation of intent or meaning, and harms further study of SLA as well as detracting from further application of Vygotsky’s concepts to the field.  Perhaps in its infancy, second language acquisition must go through developmental stages that allow researchers to give priority to the emerging field.  As with all fields (including psychology), once cherished scientific and hard notions eventually will give way to new interpretations that allow for greater freedom in determining what constitutes ‘legitimate knowledge’.  For this to happen, it is not Krashen’s ideas that need to be dismissed nor his terminology debated.  Rather, society/culture must evolve from a Western, scientific and hard context, where only ideas presented in a (perhaps false) scientific theory can be accepted, to a more holistic context with a different paradigm.

 

 

The 3 R’s of Second Language Acquisition

Critical Commonalities of SLA

 Abstract

The Impetus for my research project came directly from my own ignorance.  Teaching is both an art and a science, and I want to be good at it.  I may be naturally good (or well trained) at the “art” of teaching, but without understanding how people learn or what factors make for maximum learning in minimal time, none of us can expect to “know” that our approach to teaching is either the most efficient or the most effective.  On the other hand, without understanding how to implement whatever knowledge I have within the classroom setting, I can’t “make use” of that knowledge in a way that has an impact on my teaching practices.

So, with all the readings and “theory” of Second Language Learning, it both amused and irritated me to find so much research being done in what I saw as a “haphazard” manner.  What I saw were a bunch of Republicans and Democrats fighting each other to promote the ideas of their “candidate” – Krashen, Long, Pica, Ellis, Swain, Wode – Input, Output, Reading, Grammar, Social Discourse, foreigner-talk, interlanguage, negotiated meanings, motivation, immersion, natural order, and on and on.  I posed two basic questions for myself throughout my travels into this field of study.  The first was this:  Regardless of what “theory” this author is promoting, or what variables are being tested in a particular study, are there some basic “commonalities” I can find throughout ALL the research available?  In other words, are there some common threads that appear in every study?  And second: If there are, and if I can pinpoint and prove them, how can these “basics” be phrased in such a way as to be “practical” for a teacher?  This second requirement means that while I found some truths to be true and meaningful, such as the relevance of socioeconomic background, previous language learning, motivation, personality type, etc…, I couldn’t waste my time focusing on these.  And I couldn’t do so because these are not factors that we, as teachers, have any control over.  These types of concepts serve to help us “understand” more, but not to teach better.  In the end, we are all about “teaching”, and finding a “truth” is only as useful as it is “applicable” within the framework of a teacher’s ability to “make use” of it.

I read a lot.  I thought a lot.  And I found 3 incredibly meaningful, basic concepts that run rampant throughout all the literature.  I named them “reaction”, “repetition”, and “range”, with range being the most important of the three.  We can’t control someone’s motivation in general, but as teachers and “public performers”, we have tremendous capacity to learn how to “get their attention” in a classroom.  This attention is a prerequisite for any further teaching or learning process.  If they aren’t listening, and we don’t have their “interest”, we can’t continue to impact on their learning process.  No matter what a study purported to do or investigate, every one implicitly or explicitly included the idea that students paid “attention” to what was going on.  Without “attention” we have nothing.  With attention, we have a beginning.  I preferred to use the term “reaction” (although perhaps “reception” would work equally well) because it implies that something is being done with the input given.  In SLA, that something produces a “reaction” within the learner.  Although not all reactions help the learning process in the long run (for example, you can make a student “angry” and cause early termination of the desire to learn from you), the student must “respond, react to, or receive” the communication being offered.

The second important concept is “repetition”.  This repetition may take a variety of forms.  It may be the result of “forced output,” it may be the effect of reading, of repeating new vocabulary, of hearing words again and again.  But repetition is a critical key to learning, and without it, learning never moves from short term memory (where reaction may occur) into long term storage for retrieval later on.  Again, regardless of the study or theory I read about, there was a “repetition” type component, which facilitated the learning (or acquisition) process.  As with attention, repetition does not always result in learning.  There is both a minimum and a maximum level.  At the minimum, things need to be repeated in some form at least 7 times.  But beyond a maximum (which may vary for learners), there is “boredom” or excess, which then may contribute to a latent or subtle “turning off” process within the learner.  Despite these parameters, however, repetition is a primary requirement without which language acquisition simply cannot happen.

The third and most important concept is “range”.  Ellis explicitly addresses this term (and it is “his” term, not mine) in his latest work.  Range is best explained by another expression, called “complexity-consciousness”.  This phrase, which is attributed to Pierre Teilharrd de Chardin, a Jesuit paleontologist and theologian, refers to an evolutionary process.  In this process, he noted that life developed along lines of increasing complexity and a parallel increase in consciousness.  Simply put, the amoeba is simpler in terms of molecular structure, and has little, if any consciousness.  As we move up the line of life, through plants, to animals, and humans, we see increasing levels of molecular complexity and accompanying higher levels of consciousness.  In life as we know it on earth, man has the most densely packed and complex web of molecular structures, as well as the highest form of consciousness.  Thus we have the highest levels of complexity-consciousness.  Teilhard posed that the next level of evolution would occur within the intellectual and spiritual realms, where man’s consciousness continues to evolve.  But that’s a subject for another day.  His theory’s applicability within the realm of SLA is what we want to look at.

If in fact, this model of complexity consciousness is valid and true, and if it applies to life’s processes, then it must apply at every level within life.  Then we can rephrase this biological model in terms of learning.  Learning occurs in leaps (as does evolution) within the mind that lead to understanding and permanent change (knowing – increased consciousness), when something within the mind changes as a result of attaining a required level of complexity, or density of structure.  This density of structure or complexity is composed of the maximizing of all inputs that are related, and which contain the same “new” meaning.  Let’s get practical.  Range, then (or complexity) is that which allows the learner to maximize their “view” of a new item of learning, or, it is the constant increase in “contextual” elements within the learning process.  Range is provided when a student sees the same word in many different sentences, all of which add to the “perception” and understanding of what that word really means.  This I call the “micro” level of range.  Range is also the variety of methods and forms we use in conveying a piece of knowledge.  It is increased when we not only express new words, but have students express them, have students read them, have students recognize them, have students write them.  This is what I call the “macro” level of using range to increase understanding and learning.  It is not to be confused with another, similar concept.  It is not re-explaining in 5 thousand ways what a particular word might mean when a student doesn’t seem to understand it.  The more we try to explain, the more new words we may introduce, the more confused the student may become.  Rather, it is providing different “modes” or views of the same thing through variation in methods used to target the same item of knowledge.

Of the three, range (or complexity) is the most effective and most critical.  Effective because it already incorporates reaction and repetition components.  The more varied the stimulus we provide in approaching the same item, the more likely one or more will cause a “reaction” within the learner.  And of course, the varied stimulus all point to, or contain the new item, which means “repetition” is occurring.  Unlike reaction and repetition, there aren’t any downsides to using range to maximize the potential for increased “consciousness” or learning/permanent change.  In all research and studies, range is the component that most affected positive learning outcomes.  It also gives us a new vantage point for our understanding of theories of SLA; one which doesn’t lead us into different, conflicting camps.  The concept of range allows us all to acknowledge the value of every major researcher’s concepts and initiatives, since all of them provide us with a greater “variety” of methods to use for maximizing learning in our students.

Reaction, repetition, and range; and the greatest of these is “range”.  Without them, we have nothing; with them, we have, as teachers, all the tools required to maximize our effectiveness in providing students with what they need to learn.

 

The 3 R’s of SLA

 

There are over 40 theories of Second Language Acquisition (Larson-Freeman & Long, 227) and thousands of studies assessing the value of various teaching methods.  The motivations of authors may vary, but the end purpose of all SLA research studies is to find ways to maximize teacher effectiveness and student learning.  Nativist theories, most closely connected to Chomsky and Krashen, focus on innate learner variables.  Environmentalist theories, associated with Skinner and Schumann, focus on the impact of experience.  Interactionist theories, represented by a wide diversity of authors, have fathered “discourse analysis” and attempt to balance the “nature-nurture” scale.  Within each of these traditions lies some aspect of truth related to SLA, and each has spawned hundreds of studies to evaluate the forces which impact on the development of language fluency.

Notwithstanding much heated debate, some concepts have become “common knowledge” within the SLA teaching community.  These generally accepted ideas have catapulted SLA into a major new discipline and provide the groundwork for current approaches to curriculum development and implementation.  Learners who tend to succeed are motivated (Gardner and Lambert, 1959) and affective variables have “visible effects on learning results” (Dulay, Burt, & Krashen, 1982, 54).  Input is required and must be “comprehensible” (Long, 1981; Krashen, 1985).  Interaction is more effective in providing comprehensible input than non-interactive input (Pica, 1987). Foreigner talk, which appears similar to motherese, “facilitates comprehension of meaning by learners” (Galloway, 226; Hatch, 1978; Ellis, Tanaka, & Yamazaki, 1994).  Developmental stages must be taken into account when teaching a second language (Clahsen, Meisel, and Pienemann, 1983).  There is a similarity between first and second language acquisition processes (Wode, 1981).  Grammar instruction promotes writing effectiveness (Scott, 1989) and also “helps” learners acquire language (Terrell, 1989).  There is a need for “negotiation of meaning” even among early learners (Freed, 1991, 35) and a “natural order” of acquisition (Gass & Selinker, 1994; Dulay & Burt, 1974), which cannot be significantly altered by instruction (Pienemann in Pfaff, 1987, 161).  Forced oral practice of the target language results in “comprehensible output”, which also aids in the development of language fluency (Swain in Gass and Madden, 1985, 252).  Reading facilitates language acquisition and supports the teaching process (Elley, 1991).  More intense and varied exposure supports rapid language acquisition (Collins, Halter, Lightbrown, & Spada, 1999).   These are some of the most widely accepted and relatively well understood ideas that teachers already include in their challenging roles as guides to second language learning.

But common knowledge cannot always be readily translated into meaningful techniques for classroom teaching.  While motivation, socioeconomic background, and personality traits make a significant difference in the end results of language acquisition, teachers do not control these factors.  Although age and previous exposure to other languages impacts on the facility with which learners can absorb new language information, no teacher can make use of this knowledge in a meaningful way.  Teachers simply cannot alter history or change “aptitudes”, or provide for maximum exposure outside the classroom.  This does not make research in unalterable variables meaningless or imply that such research should be abandoned.  But teachers who practice their profession on a daily basis seek to know about those things that can be effectively turned into tools for improving their impact as teachers.  They need “practical” knowledge from research, knowledge that will help them in any environment and support all types of curriculum.  What the paper purports to do is focus on three variables, which have been shown to impact significantly on language acquisition.  These three factors: reaction, range, and repetition, are the primary ingredients of any successful learning process, and understanding exactly what they are, how they occur, and how to maximize their effect will significantly improve learner progress in any environment.

We have posited three terms, which we claim are factors that play a primary role in SLA, and which we, as teachers, can control within the classroom environment.  Further, we will claim that these factors play a principal role in ALL learning and form the foundation of human growth, which is an evolutionary process.  We are not here debating whether the earth was “created” or “evolved”, but rather looking at a well documented and accepted scientific fact involving the processes of change.  Teilhard de Chardin put this process this way:

“that if the universe, regarded sidereally, is in process of spatial expansion (from the infinitesimal to the immense), in the same way and still more clearly it presents itself to us, physico-chemically, as in process of organic involution upon itself (from the extremely simple to the extremely complex), —and, moreover, this particular involution ‘ of complexity ‘ is experimentally bound up with a correlative increase in interiorisation, that is to say in the psyche or consciousness.”” (Teilhard de Chardin, 1975)

Let’s simplify these words.  Life appears to progress, from the smallest (amoeba) to the highest (man) level or organization in a manner which systematically increases molecular complexity and is accompanied by an increase in consciousness.  Why is this important for SLA?  If in fact, this process is a “truth” and forms the foundation of life’s processes, then this truth permeates all levels of growth, including the individual’s ability to intellectually process information.  This theory is known as “complexity-consciousness”.  A rise in consciousness (learning) results from the growth of complexity (range) within the system in a punctuated manner.  “Punctuated” means that a new form (new understanding) emerges at certain intervals when “complexity” reaches a required “maximum” density.  The precise amount of complexity needed (for maximization) may not be known, but the process itself is known and predictable.  This is a fundamental law whereby all change and growth (learning) occurs.  It will become, for us, the central core of SLA and the most critical aspect which teachers control; the development of complexity, or “range” for learners.

Before we delve into a more detailed understanding of what “range” means for SLA and why it actually is the MOST critical factor in language acquisition, let’s discuss the other two important aspects of learning, “reaction” and “repetition”.  Reaction is another term for what we sometimes call attention or focus.  There has been much discussion about the processes of perception and cognition, and whether learning can occur without conscious attention to input.  We know that information must somehow be “processed” before it can become internalized and recalled by the learner for use or application.  Gass discusses “selective processing” which turns input into “intake” (Gass, 5).  “Literature in experimental psychology indicates that memory requires attention and awareness.” (McLaughlin, 1990).  There are well defined theories about how and why we pay attention or become conscious of input provided to us.  One of these is called “Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)”, which both discusses the processes whereby information is selected for “intake” and how information moves from temporary awareness and storage into long term storage centers within the brain.  It is founded on systems theory applied to human beings.  According to ART, input is selected for attention based on previous notions and stored information.  “Somehow the sound that we expect to hear based upon our previous language experience influences what we do hear,…” (Grossberg, 1998).  ART supports Krashen’s concepts regarding “comprehensible input” and is in sync with Vygotsky’s “zone of proximal development” theories.  Our drive for meaning initiates attention to input based on previously assimilated knowledge.  Debates on the definition of consciousness as intention, knowledge, or awareness, and how to understand levels of consciousness aside, we know that “intake is that part of the input that the learner notices” (Schmidt, 1988).  The reason “attention is paid to something” is often connected to motivation theories, and these “affective domains” are what influence discussions about what type of input serves the interests of learners best.  Social interaction, ethnic identity and relationships are factors impacting on what “input models” learners actively choose to attend to. (Beebe in Gass  & Madden, 411).  For our purposes, it suffices to understand that the process of learning requires a measure of attention, focus, noticing, or, as herein described, “reaction”.  Reaction is the term chosen because it most effectively focuses on the fact that “something must be done” with the information presented, that is to say, input must be “acted upon” or “responded to” by the system in some way for it to become fixed in memory and retrievable for later use.

Comprehensible Input becomes comprehended, or intake, based on the learner’s “reacting” in some manner to the stimulus given (information/words).  Ellis discusses this “reacting” in terms of increasing the “depth of processing” that occurs through intrapsychic work performed by the conscious attention of learners.  Providing interpersonal situations for interaction (although not necessarily “social” interaction) increases learner control of discourse, which promotes “interpersonal interaction” or “private speech”, which mediates the learning process. (Ellis, 239, 252, 255).  His conclusion is supportive of Krashen’s theories; the negotiation of meaning that serves learning best is not necessarily the result of “external” discourse negotiation, but the “inner” negotiation of meaning through the attention (reaction) given to input.  “Those who notice most, learn most, and it may be that those who notice most pay attention most” (Schmidt & Frota, 1986). To the degree that anything supports this attention/noticing/“reaction”, whether it is teaching metacognitive skills, giving learners greater control through social discourse, reading interesting materials, or teaching about language (grammar/syntax), it encourages and accelerates language acquisition. While teachers do not control learner motivation, aptitude, or socioeconomic background, they can control their choice of delivery style, curriculum content, classroom design, and interaction setup (activities) so as to elicit this “reaction” on the part of learners.

Repetition, which is the third critical component of SLA and learning in general, is founded on concepts which link the embedding of new information into the system through reinforcement.  This reinforcement allows temporary storage items to become more “fixed” so that they can become part of the automated network of knowledge, capable of being recalled without significant conscious effort on the part of the learner.  In management/leadership theory, there is a great deal of literature about creating new “habits” to maximize time use and efficiency.  A common concept used to ingrain new habits and patterns, is that of doing something seven times in order to “imprint” it in memory.  The minimum “repetitions” required to make something automatic is seven.  In Latin, there is a saying, “repetitio mater studiorum est”, which means “repetition is the mother of learning”.  Learning theories agree on the fact that repetition somehow enhances the underlying processes of learning.  Ellis, in reviewing a study about frequency related to SLA noted that “words that occurred seven or more times in the course books of Indian learners were known by most learners” (Ellis, 46)  Frequency, or repetition, increases the “meaningfulness” of information, increasing the potential of moving such information from Short Term Memory (STM) to Long Term Memory (LTM).  Long Term Memory requires “deeper processing” and results in permanent imprinting of knowledge for later retrieval, while STM is a relatively temporary storage space, where information “waits” to be acted upon.  If STM data is reinforced through repetition/practice, it moves into permanent storage in LTM.  If it is not reinforced, it becomes available for recall only temporarily, eventually being “forgotten”.

Krashen notes as well that while “creative language” can be lost when the left hemispehere is damaged, routines and patterns appear to remain intact, even when they are far beyond the level of the developing rule system in children, if these “unanalyzed” expressions have occurred with “high frequency” within the learner’s environment.  He implies that this high frequency occurrence results in their being available “in both the left and right brain hemispeheres” (Dulay, Burt & Krashen, 242).  Use of repetition by mothers of children has been positively correlated with L1 language development (Conti-Ramsden in Galloway & Richards, 186) while a facilitative feature in early SLA development is teacher self-repetition (Ellis in Gass & Madden, 82).  “Young children often repeat part or all of their partner’s preceding utterance in conversations” (James, 117).

Repetition can occur in any number of ways.  It occurs when learners “drill” or repeat phrases or vocabulary, when they write or read for reinforcement of information, when mothers “expand or recast their child’s utterances” (Loritz, 186), when native speakers repeat non-native speakers sentences, when clarification requests are made in discourse (Pica, 1994), or when “forced output” is used to promote language acquisition.  Repetition has been shown to be a component of all successful learning programs.  TPR, as promoted by Asher relies on repetition coupled with physical enactment to maximize retention.  Repetition in the form of “imitation, is postulated to be a universal discovery procedure for first and second language learning” (McLaughlin in Rosenberg, 235).  It is pivotal, regardless of the learner’s age.  While young children use repetition for learning in an automated or “intuitive” process, older children and adults use it equally, and often add an internal repetition system to their repertoire, as they utilize metacognitive skills to think about or analyze what they hear.  Giving learners control and encouraging modified output increases both the probability of “meaningful” interaction, and therefore, motivation; and provides opportunities for extensive repetition as well as for the likelihood of creating input that is more comprehensible to the learner (closer to their I+1 level), that is to say, within their zone of proximal development (Ellis & Xien in Ellis, 129).

Reaction (attention/focus) has been shown to be the first step in successful instruction, and repetition (practice/reinforcement) is required for embedding new information in the deeper structures of the mind, for “permanence” of learning.  In between these two, lies the crux of learning, which is range or “complexity”.  In evolution, complexity is the “density of molecular structure” required for a change of state to occur, or increased consciousness (learning).  In learning theory, we define range as the “variability of input containing that which is to be learned”.  This variability allows for “understanding” or comprehension of new material.  A simple analogy renders this definition comprehensible.  An elephant may look like a barn from behind, like a snake from up front, or like a hippopotamus from the side.  Increasing the number of directions (or angles) from which an observer can view an elephant, increases the likelihood of imparting to the observer the true sense of what an elephant is, or of helping the observer “understand” that the word elephant has all the dimensions we commonly associate with that word.

ART informs us that incoming signals are perceived in a “top-down” process, whereby what filters through our selective attention and storage systems is consistent with our previously stored expectations, or knowledge.  This “process of resonance binds together information about both meaning and phonetics” (Grossman, 10).  Neural networks develop rapidly in early life, and they do so based on the connections formed by the brain as new knowledge is processed and kept in LTM.  Subsequent learning seeks to “understand” by recalling what is known and linking new information to those segments that most closely correlate to the new data provided.  This biological process is the foundation for Vygotsky’s learning theories and the idea of “scaffolding”.  Private speech, inner speech, and social interaction all are based on the concept of scaffolding, in which the learner’s comprehension is aided either externally (via tutors, teachers, and native speakers use of foreigner talk), or internally (via metacognitive processes) by helping place new information within “reach” for the learner.  The greater the variability, or range provided, the more likely that the brain will find the connections required to make new information “meaningful”, or to “comprehend” it.  Although not adequately highlighted in SLA literature, the concept of range has been addressed by various authors.  Ellis, in reviewing research studies regarding modified input, quotes Mackey (1965) and concludes along with Carpay (1975) that range is the quantity of samples in which a new item is embedded, and that new words need to be introduced from the venue of at least four different contexts in order to be learned (Ellis, 98).  It is not whether learners have social interaction, classroom teaching, reading, or proficiency-oriented training that makes them successful in learning.  The relative success of each approach is directly correlated to the amount of variability or range that each provides the learner with.  Range, as used herein, is also alluded to as “redundancy” in SLA literature, and it has been shown to be critical in developing understanding

“In our data, it appears that what the professors are doing in their second language classes is precisely this – exploiting the potential of language and the supporting extralinguistic content to increase the redundancy of the signals through which they communicate their meaning” (Wesche & Ready in Gass & Madden, 112).

In other places, the focus is on “recasts” by teachers and “self-recasts” by learners, which provide greater “richness” by increasing complexity in language structure, and which have been shown to effectively accelerate learning (Richards in Galloway & Richards, 82).  TPR is so successful with beginning learners because it provides an alternate way  to maximize “range” for learners whose lack of basic vocabulary precludes the extensive use of verbal language, which is beyond the beginner’s “zone of proximity”, since their scaffolding is so bare yet in terms of previous knowledge on which to hang new information presented in the L2.  Instead of using “contextual referents”, TPR uses “concrete referents” (Dula, Burt & Krashen, 26) to assist the learner with creating meaning and comprehension.  Transitional constructions (Krashen) and interlanguage are the visible aspects of the “organizer’s” processing, or the ongoing effort that takes new information from the realm of “unknown” to “understood”.  Fossilization may result from the loss of reaction to input that is meant to create continued progress, or because excessive repetition of incorrect forms of the L2 have so strongly imprinted these forms as to preclude the inclusion of information meant to correct errors.  In either case, it is related to the lack of provision of adequate “range” during the learning process.  We will come back to why this is so later.

Humans are complex, adaptive systems and their language development reflects this.  New structures (species or learning) occur when a threshold of complexity is reached, which develops through the weaving of connections between the old and the new, in an efficient search for patterns and systems useful for adaptive/functional purposes.  The species evolved in this manner, language in general evolved in this manner, specific languages evolved in this manner, and individual SLA evolves in the same manner.  The goal of language is communication, and to that end, the brain seeks to understand and connect new language information to previous linguistic and cognitive structures of meaning.  Learning, similar to evolution, exhibits sudden, pervasive changes.  When an “upper boundary” of complexity is reached, a higher level of organization emerges.  In this manner, development and language learning cooperate with one another.  SLA progresses via this constant reorganization, whereby a new “level” of organization results in understanding, or “a reorganizational jump whose characteristic is that the emergent system is somehow greater than the sum of the parts that constituted it” (Barber & Peters in Hawkins & Gell-Mann, 347).

Krashen’s theory of “roughly tuned input or net” (Terrell & Krashen, 33) is founded on the concept of providing maximum range or complexity within the learner’s I+1 or “proximal zone of development”.  His emphasis on comprehensible input and inflexibility in assigning a greater role to any forms or methods that are not centered on “range” (output, the necessity of interaction, etc..) indicate his understanding of range as the “primary” requirement/necessity for SLA.    Of course, all other theories contain components that also enhance language acquisition, but they do so primarily by increasing range on a microcosmic or macrocosmic level.  As used here, the microcosmic level is that which provides information to the learner about the meaning of a word or form through its varied use in different sentences.  This type of variation supplies the learner with both an increase in frequency (repetition), and with more angles from which to gain meaning about new input (range).  In his latest work, Ellis agrees with Krashen  regarding the pre-eminence of input and the workings of the brain for SLA.

“I have argued above that the kind of interaction that is crucially important for acquisition is the intrapsychological activity that results from learners’ attempts to process input for comprehension and acquisition.  Such activity is not dependent on learners’ ability to interact socially, although, doubtlessly this is one way in which it can be stimulated” (Ellis, 242).

Ellis further notes that in terms of production or forced output, “there does not appear to be any obvious advantage for either the acquisition of vocabulary or grammar of actively participating in interaction” (Ellis, 245).  The macrocosmic level is that aspect of complexity or range, which increases the situational contexts in which the learner sees a particular word or form; such as reading, social interaction, forced output, classroom instruction of rules about language, teaching thinking strategies, etc..  “There is plenty of evidence to suggest that the frequency with which novel words appear in a text affects acquisition” (Ellis, 155).  Reading, again, provides the learner with both an increase in repetition of the targeted knowledge and an increase in range, or perspective (angle) from which to view the targeted knowledge.  Ellis notes near the end of his work, “range, in particular, emerged as an important factor; learners need the opportunity to experience a new item in a number of different contexts” (Ellis, 249).

We have seen that the three primary factors that accelerate learning or SLA are reaction, range, and repetition.  Of these three, range stands out as the most important.  The reason for this is simple and obvious.  First, reactions can be both positive and negative, and excessive attention to one particular can preclude openness of the system to further input while it “overfocuses” on one aspect of all that is being presented.  Although teachers can do many things to gain attention or to motivate students, there is no guarantee that simply focusing will result in learning or acquisition.  It may result in temporary focus and place new information only in the STM, which can eventually extinguish.  It may also result in inappropriate focusing, for example, a teacher who dresses as a clown in order to teach things about the circus also produces “static” or distractors for the learner, whose thoughts may wander to ideas that are not related to the particular task at hand.  Repetition suffers from similar problems when viewed as primary.  Studies have concluded that there is a minimum requirement, but there is also an upper boundary or maximum within which frequency must fit.  Too much repetition can exhaust the brain’s ability to pay attention, or to react, to a given input.  Further, excessive repetition can actually diminish the potential of learning, or become an irritant as boredom sets in.  It can be tricky business for a teacher to know the precise amount of rote repetition that is useful for acquisition, without risking loss of attention or harming the acquisition process.

Range, however, provides the learner with “variety” and thereby stimulates reaction, or maximizes the probability that the learner will react to the new information presented.  By incorporating varied tasks at the macrocosmic level, teachers can implement the concept of range to impact on all learners by presenting instruction in such a way as to make use of the “multiple intelligence” theory, which tells us that different learners function better with differing approaches.  Thus, reading, social interaction, participative activities, and overt grammar instruction, all maximize the probability that most learners can connect new information in a meaningful way to previous information and understand new ideas/concepts/words.

Further, range provides for maximum frequency/repetition, but because it does so within the context of “variation”, it minimizes the probability that learners will “burn out” from repetition.  In this respect, then, range encompasses both reaction and repetition variables, which are subcomponents of range or “complexity”.  Fossilization, which truncates full language acquisition is often the result of the lack of range.  When the learner’s environment lacks sufficient range; either because interaction is limited to the language provided by other non-native speakers or native speakers whose language use is neither correct grammatically nor rich in vocabulary, or because not enough varied resources are utilized in teaching (reading, production, hands-on activities), incorrect and limited SLA occurs.

Understanding the impact of range on learning not only provides a framework from which to evaluate theories of SLA, but links all theories together in a comprehensive whole, which diminishes the need to emphasize one over the other, except to the extent that those which allow the most range for learners become recognized for providing greater acceleration in SLA.  Each focus, however, is seen as valuable, and each contributes to eventual language acquisition.  More research needs to be done which identifies range as the primary critical factor in the underlying studies, which compare various theories of SLA.  In doing so, researchers will be able to connect SLA research to advances in learning theory, as well as make use of the discoveries of other fields of study, including physics, cybernetics, economics, sociology, and archeology.  Meanwhile, teachers need to understand the concept of range and recognize its importance in second language acquisition.  By doing so, they acquire the ability to significantly enhance their potential to successfully assist learners in acquiring language fluency.

 

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Gass, S. (1997). Input, Interaction, and the Second Language Learner. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Grossberg, S. (1998). The Link Between Brain Learning, Attention, and Consciousness. Technical Report CAS/CNS-TR-97-018, Boston University.

Hawkins, J., & Gell-Mann, M. (Eds.). (1992). The Evolution of Human Languages: Proceedings of the workshop on the evolution of human languages. (Vol. XI). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

James, S. (1990). Normal Language Acquisition. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin System.

Krashen, S., Long, M., & Scarcella, R. (1979). Age, Rate and Eventual Attainment in Second Language Acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 13, No. 4, 573-581.

Krashen, S. & Terrell, T. (1983). The Natural Approach. California: The Alemany Press.

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. (1997). An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Inc.

Long, M. (1983). Does Second Language Instruction Make A Difference? TESOL Quarterly, 17, No. 3, 359-381.

Loritz, D. (1999). How the Brain Evolved Language. New York: Oxford University Press.

McLaughlin, B. (1990). “Conscious” versus “Unconscious” Learning. TESOL Quarterly, 24:4, 617-631.

Pfaff, C. (Ed.). (1982). First and Second Language Acquisition Processes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.

Pica, T. (1982). Adult Acquisition of English as a Second Language under Different Conditions of Exposure. Language Learning, 33:4, 465-495.

Pica, T. (1992). Research on Negotiation: What Does It Reveal About Second Language Learning Conditions, Processes, and Outcomes? Language Learning, 44:3, 493-527.

Rosenberg, S. (Ed.). (1982). Handbook of Applied Psycholinguistics: Major Thrusts of Research and Theory. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129-158.

Teilhard de Chardin, P. (1975) The Essence of the Phenomenon of Man. (On-line) Extracts cited by Janice B. Paulsen from the final chapter of The Phenomenon of Man, 300-310, www.richmond.edu/~jpaulsen/teilhard/psquotes.html.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Idioms and Sayings

A Bird In The Hand Is Worth Two In The Bush:

Having something that is certain is much better than taking a risk for more, because chances are you might lose everything.

 

A Blessing In Disguise:

Something good that isn’t recognized at first.

 

A Chip On Your Shoulder:

Being upset for something that happened in the past.

 

A Dime A Dozen:

Anything that is common and easy to get.

 

A Doubting Thomas:

A skeptic who needs physical or personal evidence in order to believe something.

 

A Drop in the Bucket:

A very small part of something big or whole.

 

A Fool And His Money Are Easily Parted:

It’s easy for a foolish person to lose his/her money.

 

A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand:

Everyone involved must unify and function together or it will not work out.

 

A Leopard Can’t Change His Spots:

You cannot change who you are.

 

A Penny Saved Is A Penny Earned:

By not spending money, you are saving money (little by little).

 

A Picture Paints a Thousand Words:

A visual presentation is far more descriptive than words.

 

A Piece of Cake:

A task that can be accomplished very easily.

 

A Slap on the Wrist:

A very mild punishment.

 

A Taste Of Your Own Medicine:

When you are mistreated the same way you mistreat others.

 

A Toss-Up:

A result that is still unclear and can go either way.

 

Actions Speak Louder Than Words:

It’s better to actually do something than just talk about it.

 

Add Fuel To The Fire:

Whenever something is done to make a bad situation even worse than it is.

 

Against The Clock:

Rushed and short on time.

 

All Bark And No Bite:

When someone is threatening and/or aggressive but not willing to engage in a fight.

 

All Greek to me:

Meaningless and incomprehensible like someone who cannot read, speak, or understand any of the Greek language would be.

 

All In The Same Boat:

When everyone is facing the same challenges.

 

An Arm And A Leg:

Very expensive. A large amount of money.

 

An Axe To Grind:

To have a dispute with someone.

 

Apple of My Eye:

Someone who is cherished above all others.

 

As High As A Kite:

Anything that is high up in the sky.

 

At The Drop Of A Hat:

Willing to do something immediately.

 

B

 

Back Seat Driver:

People who criticize from the sidelines, much like someone giving unwanted advice from the back seat of a vehicle to the driver.

 

Back To Square One:

Having to start all over again.

 

Back To The Drawing Board:

When an attempt fails and it’s time to start all over.

 

Baker’s Dozen:

Thirteen.

 

Barking Up The Wrong Tree:

A mistake made in something you are trying to achieve.

 

Beat A Dead Horse:

To force an issue that has already ended.

 

Beating Around The Bush:

Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue.

 

Bend Over Backwards:

Do whatever it takes to help. Willing to do anything.

 

Between A Rock And A Hard Place:

Stuck between two very bad options.

 

Bite Off More Than You Can Chew:

To take on a task that is way to big.

 

Bite Your Tongue:

To avoid talking.

 

Blood Is Thicker Than Water:

The family bond is closer than anything else.

 

Blue Moon:

A rare event or occurrence.

 

Break A Leg:

A superstitious way to say ‘good luck’ without saying ‘good luck’, but rather the opposite.

 

Buy A Lemon:

To purchase a vehicle that constantly gives problems or stops running after you drive it away.

 

C

 

Can’t Cut The Mustard :

Someone who isn’t adequate enough to compete or participate.

 

Cast Iron Stomach:

Someone who has no problems, complications or ill effects with eating anything or drinking anything.

 

Charley Horse:

Stiffness in the leg / A leg cramp.

 

Chew someone out:

Verbally scold someone.

 

Chip on his Shoulder:

Angry today about something that occured in the past.

 

Chow Down:

To eat.

 

Close but no Cigar:

To be very near and almost accomplish a goal, but fall short.

 

Cock and Bull Story:

An unbelievable tale.

 

Come Hell Or High Water:

Any difficult situation or obstacle.

 

Crack Someone Up:

To make someone laugh.

 

Cross Your Fingers:

To hope that something happens the way you want it to.

 

Cry Over Spilt Milk:

When you complain about a loss from the past.

 

Cry Wolf:

Intentionally raise a false alarm.

 

Cup Of Joe:

A cup of coffee.

 

Curiosity Killed The Cat:

Being Inquisitive can lead you into a dangerous situation.

 

Cut to the Chase:

Leave out all the unnecessary details and just get to the point.

 

D

 

Dark Horse:

One who was previously unknown and is now prominent.

 

Dead Ringer:

100% identical. A duplicate.

 

Devil’s Advocate:

Someone who takes a position for the sake of argument without believing in that particular side of the argument. It can also mean one who presents a counter argument for a position they do believe in, to another debater.

 

Dog Days of Summer:

The hottest days of the summer season.

 

Don’t count your chickens before they hatch:

Don’t rely on it until your sure of it.

 

Don’t Look A Gift Horse In The Mouth:

When someone gives you a gift, don’t be ungrateful.

 

Don’t Put All Your Eggs In One Basket:

Do not put all your resources in one possibility.

 

Doozy:

Something outstanding.

 

Down To The Wire:

Something that ends at the last minute or last few seconds.

 

Drastic Times Call For Drastic Measures:

When you are extremely desperate you need to take extremely desperate actions.

 

Drink like a fish:

To drink very heavily.

 

Drive someone up the wall:

To irritate and/or annoy very much.

 

Dropping Like Flies:

A large number of people either falling ill or dying.

 

Dry Run:

Rehearsal.

 

 

E

 

Eighty Six:

A certain item is no longer available. Or this idiom can also mean, to throw away.

 

Elvis has left the building:

The show has come to an end. It’s all over.

 

Ethnic Cleansing:

Killing of a certain ethnic or religious group on a massive scale.

 

Every Cloud Has A Silver Lining:

Be optimistic, even difficult times will lead to better days.

 

Everything But The Kitchen Sink:

Almost everything and anything has been included.

 

Excuse my French:

Please forgive me for cussing.

 

Cock and Bull Story:

An unbelievable tale.

 

Cock and Bull Story:

An unbelievable tale.

 

F

 

Feeding Frenzy:

An aggressive attack on someone by a group.

 

Field Day:

An enjoyable day or circumstance.

 

Finding Your Feet:

To become more comfortable in whatever you are doing.

 

Finger lickin’ good:

A very tasty food or meal.

 

Fixed In Your Ways:

Not willing or wanting to change from your normal way of doing something.

 

Flash In The Pan:

Something that shows potential or looks promising in the beginning but fails to deliver anything in the end.

 

Flea Market:

A swap meet. A place where people gather to buy and sell inexpensive goods.

 

Flesh and Blood:

This idiom can mean living material of which people are made of, or it can refer to someone’s family.

 

Flip The Bird:

To raise your middle finger at someone.

 

Foam at the Mouth:

To be enraged and show it.

 

Fools’ Gold:

Iron pyrites, a worthless rock that resembles real gold.

 

French Kiss:

An open mouth kiss where tongues touch.

 

From Rags To Riches:

To go from being very poor to being very wealthy.

 

Fuddy-duddy:

An old-fashioned and foolish type of person.

 

Full Monty:

This idiom can mean either, “the whole thing” or “completely nude”.

 

Funny Farm:

A mental institutional facility.

 

G

 

Get Down to Brass Tacks:

To become serious about something.

 

Get Over It:

To move beyond something that is bothering you.

 

Get Up On The Wrong Side Of The Bed:

Someone who is having a horrible day.

 

Get Your Walking Papers:

Get fired from a job.

 

Give Him The Slip:

To get away from. To escape.

 

Go Down Like A Lead Balloon:

To be received badly by an audience.

 

Go For Broke:

To gamble everything you have.

 

Go Out On A Limb:

Put yourself in a tough position in order to support someone/something.

 

Go The Extra Mile:

Going above and beyond whatever is required for the task at hand.

 

Good Samaritan:

Someone who helps others when they are in need, with no discussion for compensation, and no thought of a reward.

 

Graveyard Shift:

Working hours from about 12:00 am to 8:00 am. The time of the day when most other people are sleeping.

 

Great Minds Think Alike:

Intelligent people think like each other.

 

Green Room:

The waiting room, especially for those who are about to go on a tv or radio show.

 

Gut Feeling:

A personal intuition you get, especially when feel something may not be right.

 

H

 

Haste Makes Waste:

Quickly doing things results in a poor ending.

 

Hat Trick:

When one player scores three goals in the same hockey game. This idiom can also mean three scores in any other sport, such as 3 homeruns, 3 touchdowns, 3 soccer goals, etc.

 

Have an Axe to Grind:

To have a dispute with someone.

 

He Lost His Head:

Angry and overcome by emotions.

 

Head Over Heels:

Very excited and/or joyful, especially when in love.

 

Hell in a Handbasket:

Deteriorating and headed for complete disaster.

 

High Five:

Slapping palms above each others heads as celebration gesture.

 

High on the Hog:

Living in Luxury.

 

Hit The Books:

To study, especially for a test or exam.

 

Hit The Hay:

Go to bed or go to sleep.

 

Hit The Nail on the Head:

Do something exactly right or say something exactly right.

 

Hit The Sack:

Go to bed or go to sleep.

 

Hocus Pocus:

In general, a term used in magic or trickery.

 

Hold Your Horses:

Be patient.

 

I

 

Icing On The Cake:

When you already have it good and get something on top of what you already have.

 

Idle Hands Are The Devil’s Tools:

You are more likely to get in trouble if you have nothing to do.

 

If It’s Not One Thing, It’s Another:

When one thing goes wrong, then another, and another…

 

In Like Flynn:

To be easily successful, especially when sexual or romantic.

 

In The Bag:

To have something secured.

 

In The Buff:

Nude.

 

In The Heat Of The Moment:

Overwhelmed by what is happening in the moment.

 

In Your Face:

An aggressive and bold confrontation.

 

It Takes Two To Tango:

A two person conflict where both people are at fault.

 

It’s A Small World:

You frequently see the same people in different places.

 

Its Anyone’s Call:

A competition where the outcome is difficult to judge or predict.

 

Ivy League:

Since 1954 the Ivy League has been the following universities: Columbia, Brown, Cornell, Dartmouth, Yale, Pennsylvania, Princeton, and Harvard.

 

J

 

Jaywalk:

Crossing the street (from the middle) without using the crosswalk.

 

Joshing Me:

Tricking me.

 

K

 

Keep An Eye On Him:

You should carefully watch him.

 

Keep body and soul together:

To earn a sufficient amount of money in order to keep yourself alive .

 

Keep your chin up:

To remain joyful in a tough situation.

 

Kick The Bucket:

Die.

 

Kitty-corner:

Diagonally across. Sometimes called Catty-Corner as well.

 

Knee Jerk Reaction:

A quick and automatic response.

 

Knock On Wood:

Knuckle tapping on wood in order to avoid some bad luck.

 

Know the Ropes:

To understand the details.

 

L

 

Last but not least:

An introduction phrase to let the audience know that the last person mentioned is no less important than those introduced before him/her.

 

Lend Me Your Ear:

To politely ask for someone’s full attention.

 

Let Bygones Be Bygones:

To forget about a disagreement or argument.

 

Let Sleeping Dogs Lie:

To avoid restarting a conflict.

 

Let The Cat Out Of The Bag:

To share a secret that wasn’t suppose to be shared.

 

Level playing field:

A fair competition where no side has an advantage.

 

Like a chicken with its head cut off:

To act in a frenzied manner.

 

liquor someone up:

To get someone drunk.

 

Long in the Tooth:

Old people (or horses).

 

Loose Cannon:

Someone who is unpredictable and can cause damage if not kept in check.

 

M

 

Make No Bones About:

To state a fact so there are no doubts or objections.

 

Method To My Madness:

Strange or crazy actions that appear meaningless but in the end are done for a good reason.

 

Mumbo Jumbo:

Nonsense or meaningless speech.

 

Mum’s the word:

To keep quiet. To say nothing.

 

N

 

Nest Egg:

Savings set aside for future use.

 

Never Bite The Hand That Feeds You:

Don’t hurt anyone that helps you.

 

New kid on the block:

Someone new to the group or area.

 

New York Minute:

A minute that seems to go by quickly, especially in a fast paced environment.

 

No Dice:

To not agree. To not accept a proposition.

 

No Room to Swing a Cat:

An unusually small or confined space.

 

Not Playing With a Full Deck:

Someone who lacks intelligence.

 

O

 

Off On The Wrong Foot:

Getting a bad start on a relationship or task.

 

Off The Hook:

No longer have to deal with a tough situation.

 

Off the Record:

Something said in confidence that the one speaking doesn’t want attributed to him/her.

 

On Pins And Needles:

Anxious or nervous, especially in anticipation of something.

 

On The Fence:

Undecided.

 

On The Same Page:

When multiple people all agree on the same thing.

 

Out Of The Blue:

Something that suddenly and unexpectedly occurs.

 

Out On A Limb:

When someone puts themself in a risky situation.

 

Out On The Town:

To enjoy yourself by going out.

 

Over My Dead Body:

When you absolutely will not allow something to happen.

 

Over the Top:

Very excessive.

 

P

 

Pass The Buck:

Avoid responsibility by giving it to someone else.

 

Pedal to the metal:

To go full speed, especially while driving a vehicle.

 

Peeping Tom:

Someone who observes people in the nude or sexually active people, mainly for his own gratification.

 

Pick up your ears:

To listen very carefully.

 

Pig In A Poke:

A deal that is made without first examining it.

 

Pig Out :

To eat alot and eat it quickly.

 

Pipe Down:

To shut-up or be quiet.

 

Practice Makes Perfect:

By constantly practicing, you will become better.

 

Pull the plug:

To stop something. To bring something to an end.

 

Pulling Your Leg:

Tricking someone as a joke.

 

Put a sock in it:

To tell noisy person or a group to be quiet.

 

R

 

Raincheck:

An offer or deal that is declined right now but willing to accept later.

 

Raining Cats and Dogs:

A very loud and noisy rain storm.

 

Ring Fencing:

Seperated usual judgement to guarantee protection, especially project funds.

 

Rise and Shine:

Time to get out of bed and get ready for work/school.

 

Rome Was Not Built In One Day:

If you want something to be completely properly, then its going to take time.

 

Rule Of Thumb:

A rough estimate.

 

Run out of steam:

To be completely out of energy.

 

S

 

Saved By The Bell:

Saved at the last possible moment.

 

Scapegoat:

Someone else who takes the blame.

 

Scot-free:

To escape and not have to pay.

 

Sick As A Dog:

To be very sick (with the flu or a cold).

 

Sitting Shotgun:

Riding in the front passenger seat of a car.

 

Sixth Sense:

A paranormal sense that allows you to communicate with the dead.

 

Skid Row:

The rundown area of a city where the homeless and drug users live.

 

Smell A Rat:

To detect somone in the group is betraying the others.

 

Smell Something Fishy:

Detecting that something isn’t right and there might be a reason for it.

 

Son of a Gun:

A scamp.

 

Southpaw:

Someone who is left-handed.

 

Spitting Image:

The exact likeness or kind.

 

Start From Scratch:

To do it all over again from the beginning.

 

T

 

The Ball Is In Your Court:

It is your decision this time.

 

The Best Of Both Worlds:

There are two choices and you have them both.

 

The Bigger They Are The Harder They Fall:

While the bigger and stronger opponent might be alot more difficult to beat, when you do they suffer a much bigger loss.

 

The Last Straw:

When one small burden after another creates an unbearable situation, the last straw is the last small burden that one can take.

 

The Whole Nine Yards:

Everything. All of it.

 

Third times a charm:

After no success the first two times, the third try is a lucky one.

 

Tie the knot:

To get married.

 

Til the cows come home:

A long time.

 

To Make A Long Story Short:

Something someone would say during a long and boring story in order to keep his/her audience from losing attention. Usually the story isn’t shortened.

 

To Steal Someone’s Thunder:

To take the credit for something someone else did.

 

Tongue And Cheek:

humor, not to be taken serious.

 

Turn A Blind Eye:

Refuse to acknowledge something you know is real or legit.

 

Twenty three skidoo:

To be turned away.

 

U

 

Under the weather:

Feeling ill or sick.

 

Up a blind alley:

Going down a course of action that leads to a bad outcome.

 

Use Your Loaf:

Use your head. Think smart.

 

V

 

Van Gogh’s ear for music:

Tone deaf.

 

Variety Is The Spice Of Life:

The more experiences you try the more exciting life can be.

 

 

 

W

 

Wag the Dog:

A diversion away from something of greater importance.

 

Water Under The Bridge:

Anything from the past that isn’t significant or important anymore.

 

Wear Your Heart On Your Sleeve:

To openly and freely express your emotions.

 

When It Rains, It Pours:

Since it rarely rains, when it does it will be a huge storm.

 

When Pigs Fly :

Something that will never ever happen.

 

Wild and Woolly:

Uncultured and without laws.

 

Wine and Dine:

When somebody is treated to an expensive meal.

 

Without A Doubt:

For certain.

 

X

 

X marks the spot:

A phrase that is said when someone finds something he/she has been looking for.

 

Y

 

You Are What You Eat:

In order to stay healthy you must eat healthy foods.

 

You Can’t Judge A Book By Its Cover:

Decisions shouldn’t be made primarily on appearance.

 

You Can’t Take it With You:

Enjoy what you have and not what you don’t have, since when you die you cannot take things (such as money) with you.

 

Your Guess Is As Good As Mine:

I have no idea.

 

Z

 

Zero Tolerance:

No crime or law breaking big or small will be overlooked.

FALLACIES IN TEACHING

 

“I’ll just teach but I don’t really desire to ‘know’ my students.”

Teaching is about entering into relationship on purpose (intentionally) in order to promote the development of the ELL’s English language skills. The operative word here is “relationship.” Human beings seek “meaning” and have a natural desire to relate.  Language is the vehicle of exchange so that meaningful relationships can develop.  In other words, if you’re not interested in developing meaningful relationships with your students, don’t teach.  It matters much less whether or not you’re really great at relating or skilled in meaningful conversation – these are ‘skills’ (strategies) that can be taught and learned.  While the focus of the relationship IS the development of language skills, full expression of a language cannot be limited to a discussion of linguistic items (verbs, articles, sentence structure, etc…), themes/topics are related to personal and interpersonal concerns, and student motivation is heavily influenced by the quality of the teacher-student relationship.

This MOTIVATION is one of the most effective predictors of language learning success.  Desire (or motivation) is required for language learning.  An unmotivated student is NOT a successful student. Motivation influences how much effort and time we put into learning, and how focused we are on the object/s of learning.   The quality of our relationships is a primary determinant of student motivation to interact repeatedly or routinely; this interaction is the milieu in which our teaching can take place.

 

“A good teacher talks less and listens more – In a good class, you don’t hear the teacher talk; you hear students talking.”

Teachers model appropriate patterns for students and they ‘lead’ their students to learning.  They ‘talk-aloud’ exercises so students can emulate appropriate responses, and hear the right words pronounced correctly.  When a teacher talks and uses ‘ideal’ English, they provide visual and auditory input for learning purposes.  Once again, the operative words here are ‘ideal’ and ‘for learning’ – Those who know ‘more’ regardless of the subject, tend to dominate relevant conversations and others listen.  The ‘listeners’ gain valuable input and have time to form their own ideas before responding.  They are receiving knowledge and input and then applying reason to provide feedback based on what they learn and process through the exchange.  They generally “want” to listen and hear (the same way we do in a seminar) so they, too, can become more knowledgeable and proficient.  If they are to ever aspire to greater ability, they choose to immerse themselves and to do so primarily by listening to and observing ‘experts’ in action.  That’s why we go to demonstrations of teaching strategies, and that’s why we attend lectures, and read books.  In these settings, learners want less ‘do-it-yourself’ than they want modeling and interaction and descriptive discourse that shows and explains.

Language is not about just using a tool in the abstract or ‘pretend’ arena.  It’s not an abstract science (although it can be for linguists, etc…) – It’s an applied science.  While applied science requires practice and review, it is developed through its use – and it’s used to provide meaningful exchange.  In order to really use a word appropriately and with ease, we have to hear it repeatedly.  Repetition is the mother of all learning.  But repetition extinguishes learning (law of diminishing returns) as boredom sets in (the need for novelty in order to ‘pay attention’ to specific items).   So we require repeated approaches to the same, targeted phenomenon from multiple angles (experiential settings).  This is called “RANGE” – the many ways in which we try to get someone to understand a particular culturo-linguistic feature.  An example might be conveying the meaning of something as simple as, “get out of”.  To ‘get out of a chore’ is nearly the opposite of the question “What did you get out of that lecture?” Certainly, we can add more similar expressions that mean very different things – such as: “Let’s get out of here.”  – and then there’s “What happens to a pianist if she gets out of practice.”  While these items may be more difficult than teaching someone “how to read, write, and say numbers 1 through 10”, both types require repeated ‘showing’ and ‘explaining’ in order to be learned by someone who can’t speak our language.

So that’s the ‘not-so-short’ answer.  You hear LOTS of ‘teacher talk’ both modeling and explaining the language and using it according to its purpose: to provide meaningful exchange.  A good teacher who talks a lot with the purpose of engaging in relationship, has a good command of the language, and the ability to explain concepts – will naturally want verbal feedback and interaction.  Students WILL be engaged either really listening and watching or they will be responding to cues and using the language to express themselves as they also focus on form – the precise targeted linguistic learning item.

 

“The sooner you get them talking, the better.”

What exactly do you mean by that?  Yes, studies show (see the more ‘research-oriented’ section) that while producing language (talking) is necessary for our definition of “fluency,” forcing its production early on is often counter-productive to achieving full fluency.  Why?  Because it may well have a negative ‘affective impact’ (it might diminish motivation and exacerbate negative feelings related to self-perception and competence) – and part of what is known to be necessary is ‘removing the affective filter’ as Krashen puts it, or removing inhibitions and insecurities.  The best way to encourage production is simply to ‘model’ it by providing lots of good, funny, interesting “input” (teacher talk) at a level slightly above the student’s current ability level (at the i + 1 level).

You don’t make them have to talk and you don’t have to make them talk – You make them read aloud, over and over and over again – and you add humor, explanation, pronunciation, and model the reading with enjoyment!  You ask questions, model responses (Hi, My name is Nancy, what’s yours?) – and encourage active participation – and you quickly ‘step in’ to model and assist verbally when you see hints of faltering and/or embarrassment/pain. When you get right responses, you praise genuinely and with admiration. Good teachers do provide exercises that require verbal repetition and practice.  Students will ‘naturally’ start taking the personal initiative to engage verbally if the modeling is good, and the relationship is healthy.

 

“Don’t embarrass students by making corrections while engaged in a language learning activity.”

It takes just as long to learn the wrong thing as the right thing; sometimes it takes less time to learn the wrong thing (usually because it’s the easier way). The magic number of average repetitions it takes to ‘automate’ items of language usage (or any small bit of information/skill) is 7.  So, if you let a student pronounce something incorrectly (some of these common errors in Spanish include such items as failing to know when to say asked versus ask Ed, or   especial instead of special) often enough, you will have a fossilized ‘bad habit’; an item of learning that is near-permanently embedded and extremely difficult to “fix”.  The most difficult issues are not in areas where someone has “no knowledge” but rather when they have “wrong knowledge” applied incorrectly and repeatedly.  It will be much like trying to get rid of an accent or slang that has become an integrated part of someone’s persona.

 

Make corrections the way you breathe air: naturally, routinely, immediately, and continuously.  Breathing air doesn’t keep you from continuing to focus on your activities – and corrections shouldn’t stop or hinder the overall lesson’s goal nor do they need to be embarrassing.  A correction only interrupts the overall objective momentarily – it is addressed to the whole class, and it happens all the time to everyone without diverting the ‘flow’ of the lesson.  If you find yourself correcting everything all the time such that you can’t complete a brief exercise – then you’re engaged in an activity that is greater than i +1 or out of the range of ability for your class.  If you’re in a mixed level class, then encourage the advanced students to do it for you by seating advanced students next to less skilled students.  They won’t worry about stopping the class or embarrassing their neighbor because they know they are helping one another. If you have established a good group spirit and modeled good and helpful relationships, students will be eager to correct one another and to be corrected.

 

Caveat:  If you yourself don’t use correct English, have a strong slang or accent, or are insecure about correcting others and embarrassing them – work on fixing these problems – because your students will emulate you, you are the role model, the leader – and they’re following you.

 

 

“Grammar should be taught only as a minor, separate subject – don’t bore students with it.”

Grammar is the poor stepchild of the modern world, abused, shunned, and mistaken for a bore.  People who don’t like teaching it generally don’t know how to do so, and don’t feel secure about their own knowledge of it.  Grammar can be fun and it should be for any teacher who enjoys language learning and teaching.  Saying you don’t like grammar or can’t teach grammar is much like insisting you love math except you don’t like or do ‘formulas.’  Really.  Then you obviously don’t’ know enough math to teach math to any but the least skilled or youngest students.

 

Grammar should be taught in small bits because it requires more critical thinking and deduction/reasoning than some other areas of language instruction.  Left on its own as a pure explanation and practice – it can be made to be very boring.  Pure grammar practice should be done as a regular, small part of every week’s agenda.  It requires both clear explanation (so make sure you educate yourself about the item you’ll present) and practice (so find some practical exercises that you like or that you think work well).  If you’re excited about grammar, your students will be, too.

 

Grammar should also be inserted into lessons whenever it is recognized as a need – and it should be relationship driven.  Much like correcting pronunciation/reading issues, it should be addressed when the teacher recognizes some more or less ‘common’ problem.  But since it takes a bit more time than just saying a word or two and having the student repeat your word, it should be discussed at the end of some logical sequence of activities – but not too far from the point where the problem was noticed, so the discussion is current and meaningful.

 

Once students understand the structure or framework (grammar) of a language item, they more easily speak correctly, read correctly, and write correctly.  You can’t always ‘predict’ the sequence of grammar instruction even if you have a systematic text to guide you.  One day, suddenly, you realize that everyone is reading, “I’d, he’ll, we’ve, and you’re,” but no one realizes they’re really reading, “I would, he will, we have, and you are”.  What’s more, they think they’re seeing “your, weave, and hell” and it doesn’t make any sense to them.  This becomes a teachable moment you can’t miss!  You don’t have to go into a lengthy diatribe – just spell out the conjugation of the actual words and show how the apostrophe replaces parts of the words.  That’s a good enough start for them to feel less lost, and you can move the grammar point onto your calendar for sometime in the near future when you can focus on it longer.

 

“Teach simple, segregated bits – stay focused so they get the point and don’t confuse it with related items.”

 

 

 

 

 

TRUTHS

 

Teachers MODEL language learning….

Talking to…the other side of me.

I’m in the Blue Church mildly high on Petro’s stuff that he says comes straight from Amsterdam. Well, damn! This is one awesome place to just sit (or kneel) and be in the NOW (Thanks, Tolle). Oh, I forgot, with my earplugs in; listening to “Best Funky Disco from the 70’s”…. I’m sharing my music with God. And right here – looking at the other side of me.

Wow! They’re bong, bong, bong ringing the bells. A tourist couple spends 2 minutes kneeling and looks reverent in their hiking shoes. An older Hungarian lady is sitting 2 rows ahead of me. Reminds me of the 1960’s in Austria. But it’s her feel to me, not her appearance really – that tells me she is “Magyar.”

Could be projection but I swear I smell the musty odor of sadness, of a gentle but weighted soul carrying both the burdens of her present life without AC, dryer and a bit less comfy than hi-tech America. And the weight of too many histories of conquest and oppression: Mohacsi Vesz, the Turks, Habsburgs, Nazis, Communist Russia, and now – rogue capitalism.  It’s a heavy feeling, compounded by the perennial feminine plight of being attracted to and so forgiving of the social and psychological transgressions of her male counterpart.

I can appreciate now why my mother routinely repeated “We women are stronger than men – We have to be.”  All the while she was indirectly manipulating, pleading with and overtly adoring her terribly angry and insecure refugee husband, the father we feared and adored, and whose wrath we endured.

I am here on my own journey – to discover myself – finally choose a life, a path forward that is actually mine and not one foisted on me by virtue of circumstance or happenstance, or the whim and unfulled dreams of a suffering parent – I have been unable to assert myself this way for 60 years. Yes, I’ve been loud, audacious, and brassy – Of course! What would you expect of one who comes into the world motherless and upon being reclaimed, is immediately burdened with the weight of her mother’s fears, her father’s anger, her brother’s weakness…and then the whole, damn, god-awful story of a refugee….

Here in this blue church it all comes together like a puzzle that suddenly takes shape and you just know where to put the pieces – because – well – you just know. I’ve already dealt with how and why I failed myself or my children as a mother. You just can’t be an easygoing or natural sort of “Mom” if you never had one of your own….

And I’ve been dealing with all that fucked me up because I became an “outsider” (They say that time’s supposed to heal ya, but I ain’t done much healing).”Immigrant” is the word we use…. In a country 30 years ahead socially and technologically; going from Hungary to the USA in 1956 was like going from Pickens, SC to NYC after high school (tenfold) – from what I hear, most run back to Pickens and never leave again. THAT kind of cultural change is just too overwhelming for most of us.

So – I’m back to MY Pickens – and I can feel the connections – the language feels like me…. it just comes out so naturally, though I’ve hardly spoken it these past 40 years. It’s no wonder  that it should feel like home. I only heard it as a young child in my home and from my parents – not surprising it is the natural, first, and preferred sound in my ear… it’s music. MY music. It gives me an emotional jolt of comfort – a rush of inner security and well-being whenever I hear it.

And these people ARE like me. Serious, melancholy, well-intentioned, determined, emotional yet stoic in the face of suffering. Like me, they were steeped – though continents apart – in the same mythology, same stories, same history. We all had Magyar parents… It’s been so good to feel the kinship. I have been tempted to come “home” and rest my wandering and tired soul. But I have to admit the truth – they don’t really understand me any more here than those American friends who adopted me so long ago. Despite all the bullying, humiliation, and childhood rejection – I am more than Hungarian in my old age. I do crazy things these subdued people would never dream of ….

A blend of 2 equally playing stories and experiences – I can choose now…can’t I?

I can.

Yes, the summers I have journeyed back to my mecca, I’ve always felt calmed by the quiet serenity, reminiscent of a time gone by, an ancient call, a yearning to return to a past that promises safety and security…

Wake up! It’s the same sort of feeling you had in Mexico watching simple, poor people humbly carrying out menial tasks. The same feeling of antiquity with all its mythical trappings as in Vienna and all ancient cities. These were part of my identity in that catholic girl’s boarding school in the Viennese Alps so long ago

– where my mothger sought to save my hymen for a few extra years while she avoided the complications of raising a teenager in what was to her “A Brave New World” accompanied by a severely war traumatized husband ….

The woman in front of me is crying – I see her wipe her tears discreetly the same way I have done since childhood – doing my best to appear strong and confident. I can tell she is like me – like most of “us” – our feminine side, coupled with generations of servitude and desire, would die for the man we accompany. We will do it all: cook with enthusiasm, clean with determination, fight for our children – and make love with a passion that borders on desperation.

Would she, like my mother, pretend her husband wasn’t beating his son with a rubber hose whose center contained a flexible steel core? Would she deny the time she made her daughter eat the ‘palacsinta’ in her plate – thrown up in a moment of choking laughter….

Would she?

No. Though I feel her pain and her story as my own – this crying lady is not my family – I have coated her image with snapshots and feelings from my past as I seek to engage my “own.”

I have come on a journey, my task at 63 before I die: to find my way to myself – wherever it is that I can feel at home in my own skin…

Oh, how I just want to go home!

Somewhere, where I belong. Now I am the one quietly sniveling as I write – the disco music in my ear no longer elevates my mood – I am wretched and alone – deep within my own world – so disconnected from any other.

I rise, do not genuflect or cross myself. I have long ago left the ranks of obedient Catholics – too much education, too many disappointments: the minister who felt me up in his Baptist sanctuary, the nun who made me feel unworthy and sneered when I got special privileges to attend Mass with the nuns at 6 am, the priest in the leather jacket who for $500 was willing to bless my marriage, the one failed to hug or console my mother as she lay dying, but performed stupid rituals each time he came at her request. Judge Candida Steel of the CBCA, a few years ago sealed the lid on my faith life when she, under influence from Senator Ted Stevens, knowingly and intentionally reversed her own decision and sent us into that final spiraling bankruptcy. And I was so elated when I read the news of his sudden plane crash and death. Well earned!

But I did cross myself with holy water on my way out. Old habits die hard – and habits create security – For a moment, I was joined with Christ. God bless us both.

It’s a tourist town and I love the sights and sounds – so many languages… they are the music I dance to.

But in the stores, the prices are theivery, and the courteous sales people’s efforts to engage me are no more alluring than those of any cashiers who smile to earn a living. The earrings I just bought are made in Korea, and most Hungarian souvenirs are imports from China now…

WHAT AM I LOOKING FOR?

I really don’t like tourists with their bags and hats and baggage – the baggage of people buying other people’s services. Maybe I just don’t like people… I’ve spent my life relegated to the fringes – an idol to other less-talented misfits without the benefit of 5 languages, writing skills, and on and on… (with gratitude to my parents – of course)

Raised with hostility, seeing the world through my parents’ wounds as refugees, imprinted with how we, the genteel former aristocracy are superior to proletariat Americans – while being taunted and bullied in school and living in poverty…was an ideal recipe for social and mental illness.

May my mother’s God bless her soul for making me stronger in her rejection of me; she who once told me she never consoled me as a teen when my brother and father bonded by bullying me and ridiculing women as useless for anything besides sex – until I became unglued and ran from the dinner table in hysterics to my room….She never consoled me as I wept tears of pain and humiliation….because…well, she said…because…. she didn’t feel anything…

I know, Mom. I know. I know that in that last day as I tried to care for you dying at 92 of cancer; in that last day – perhaps the very last thing you said was “Why did my mother leave me? Why? Though so full of painkillers you could not shed tears, yet I saw and felt your own lifelong pain….the little girl you were – whose mother died when you were 5 – whose father placed her in that same boarding school where you put me…the Sacre Coeur (Sacred Heart) – the refuge you told me about so often  – the one that you returned to in your dreams …your haven of rest…that place where you had felt safe …where nuns raised you and where your religious beliefs became your “family” …. I forgive you – in fact, there is nothing to forgive you for…. it was never really  your choice to be who you were…. 

And you passed that “family” on to me… You gave me that deep love you felt from Christ and the nuns – and in my failed real family life, I too, attached to an all-loving yet all punishing father figure  Except that I, raised in my turbulent American world of the 70’s, had to overthrow the whip-weilding Father and reject his character as an unacceptable hypocrisy. I couldn’t respectt that father who beats his children or condemns the “unworthy” to hell…. No, Sir..No…. and you washed my mouth out with soap for cursing the brother carrying his father’s name who taunted me day in and day out.

But I will always keep the Christ that also came from you. And THAT Jesus is the porn in my mind’s eye when Jim and I make love. It is that power I worship in the man who likely has no idea why or how he becomes such a god in bed – but who is so glad he does…..

I’m on a journey – But what do I seek?

My mind has already processed so much of those feelings most of us never examine because we barely realize we really operate based on the feelings and NOT our rational mind. Lucky for me, I had the tools to live a dysfunctional life and find oases of health and respite – in friends here and there who despite my obvious “issues” (now so easily labeled: PTSD, rapid-cycle bipolarity, codependent, depression, hyperactive)…. saw something else…and gave me love…the love we feel when someone’s hand reaches out to us, or they laugh at my silly jokes, or Jim pulls me close for a hug and just says, “It’s OK, I’m here” – when the tears and emotions pour out for no obvious reason….or I just woke up that way – or my daughter told me once again how much she hates me and blames me for everything in her life that went wrong – or my son told me I was wrong, or Jim didn’t smile at me yet that day….

What am I looking for as I peer into the faces around me – both afraid of being the stranger and so, always ready to defend and attack – and yet telling any stranger everything about me  without catching my breath, as though this one will understand me through my endless verbal stories – and love me despite or because of who they think I am.

Where is my home? Who am I? I wander homeless through the world….waiting. Waiting for Godot:

 

Waiting to be saved from anonymity? Waiting to go home – to be part of something greater than myself – not just ideological or professional, perhaps not even ethnic… What am I always looking for in the faces I see and the voices I hear? What is it?

It strikes me suddenly…

NOT only did I lose my country, my culture, and my language. Not only did I endure abuse and rejection in American schools and at home. I know these issues and have dealt with them intellectually. Surely my strong mental capacity can rebuild those emotional reactions of fear and insecurity rooted in these experiences…. And yet – my pain and loneliness persist and have persisted despite working these through for 50 years.

GOD BLESS AMSTERDAM! Its smoke has opened a window of perception and perspective. Why did this take so long?

Born to my mother at 7 months, weighing 2.5 lbs, I was whisked away to a hospital for nearly 2 years. When I came back – in deportation…. bonded to and protecting her frail son from abuse and malnutrition, my mother no longer could bond with me – I was a stranger – even to her.

And now I know – I seek that family connection – the recognition I never had in seeing my mother’s eyes close up for the first time as a baby. Removed at birth from the sounds and smells of the mother whose womb held me in safety for 7 months – I have sought the safety of that womb since birth – a birth too soon, ejected into a foreign world – a motherless child disconnected from her primal love.

I hear whispers of that primal love whenever I hear that first language from the womb – and when I see icons and idols of my childhood – crosses and saints, clergy and big men.

But I have been talking to my son daily and with Jim since leaving my American home in Florida. And each time I see or hear them, or read their words online… I feel the desire to climb through the screen – to be near them – just to be able to touch them and be touched by them. And when I talk almost daily to those few close friends in Germany, Sweden, and America – who continue to send smiley faces and “likes”, the ones I know seem to stay interested in what I post, say, and write…. I feel a deeper contentment than I have found so far in my cultural journey to this country of my parent’s past.

Last week, Stephen wrote on Skype that he had read my post on his blog “Home is where….you feel it” and said: “Wow that was really good – Very powerful and well written” – I have no emotional control in place when I am alone…and so I cried tears of joy as my eyes reached his last word. My son liked my writing. He liked it! I must still be the little girl seeking recognition and approval – from anyone and everyone…. but especially from those I have loved.

I saw Jim yesterday – he walked around his workplace at lunchtime, showing me the bay, the beauty of my home in Bradenton. Oh, what I wouldn’t have done at that moment to be by his side…. He smiled and I was transported in a flash, seeing his face beaming down above me in bed – his smell, his hands, his power, his lips…. I asked him to send me a photo of himself – a selfie… and he did. I received it a few hours later, but he looked serious and wasn’t smiling – It wasn’t the man I had spoken to a few hours earlier.

So late last night we talked and I told him, “Honey, you weren’t smiling in that photo you sent me.”

Jim replied, “I don’t smile much.”

I countered, “You always smile when I see you.”

And then he smiled at me through my computer screen and said, “Yes, I do. Because it’s you. I only smile for you.” 

I peered into his eyes that were so full of trust and desire…and recognized – myself. And in that moment I knew what I was looking for – and even more – that I had already found it.

MY family – the one I chose and the one that chose me….

Thank God I can wrap things up soon in my ancestral homeland – and go home – finally!

Does Multimedia (CALL) provide critical “complexity” (Range) for Language Learning?

Does Multimedia (CALL) provide critical “complexity” (Range) for Language Learning?

This paper will take a brief look at research to assess whether Multimedia (MM) provides the critical complexity (Range) required for Second Language Acquisition (SLA).  The implications of such a conclusion, assuming that critical complexity provides optimal conditions for learning in general, and that MM (Computer Assisted Language Learning – CALL), when effectively used (a teacher task based on systems design theory) affords the Second Language Learner (SLL) the “critical complexity” required for SLA, are significant.  In essence, this conclusion should redirect CALL research into areas that support (confirm) the understanding of why MM maximizes LL (making connections between complexity theory, learning theory, and SLA theories) and areas that improve the development and management (systems design) of CALL applications to support Second Language Learners and teachers.

Let’s begin with a very simplified introduction to the term complexity and evolution.  Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1) proposed that evolution moves along a complexity-consciousness axis.  All life arises from the most basic structures (molecular simplicity) tending (evolving) toward ever increasing complexity.  Each increase in systems complexity among species is accompanied by an increase in consciousness (awareness).  In simple terms, evolution is a process of adaptation or learning.  This process, which proceeds in non-linear, quantitative and qualitative “leaps” (also known as a “phase transition”) and is connected to input (feedback) from the environment, transforms all matter to higher levels of organization and states of consciousness (knowledge).  In bio-systems, co-evolution, self-organization, and level formation are involved, and each new level is non-reducible to the properties of the lower order system from which it evolved (2).  To put this another way, “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts”.  The principles of evolution and complexity also apply to the evolution of language (3).  Complex adaptive systems exist as holistic and unified networks of patterns, which are self-regulatory and interactive.  Bateson (4) proposed that all adaptation was a process of learning and Deacon (5) theorized that languages and the brain co-evolved as complex adaptive systems.  Kauffman also suggested that life exists “on the edge of chaos and order”.  This edge is where complexity exists and it is where systems have the greatest capacity for evolving (learning).  Complexity is the boundary of change, adaptation and growth.  Chaos is so completely random and unstructured that life cannot exist in that state (it is too free).  Order is structured but stagnant, and lacks the variation necessary for survival (it is too bounded).  Complexity is a small, available realm where there is enough randomness and enough structure to maximize possibilities for survival (growth, evolution, learning).  In a state of complexity, there is a balance between possibilities (variation) and limitations (organization) to allow for sustainable existence and self-regulation (choice).

 

Language is also a complex adaptive system (Steels) ruled by the principles of self-organization.  Brain research indicates that the mind also makes multiple (non-linear and simultaneous) connections.  These connections are made between neurons throughout the system (brain) in response to multiple, complex, sensory inputs (auditory, visual, spatial, motor).  New knowledge (learning) creates new neural circuits, indicating a necessary (or optimal) educational focus on providing context-rich, meaningful environments that provide input for all the senses (6).  Language teaching and learning must provide comprehensible input (7) in a variety of modalities which support the numerous kinds of association that encourage learning and retention (8).  This approach brings Language Learners to the border of “complexity”, or provides the “Range” (variety of contexts in which a Language Learning item is embedded required for successful SLA (9).  The various methodologies in Second Language Learning have all promoted one or more of certain modalities, supporting “learning styles” (10).  These include Gattegno’s “Silent Way” (11), Krashen and Terrell’s “Natural Approach” (12), Asher’s Total Physical Response – TPR (13), Lozanov’s “Suggestopedia (14), and Curran’s “whole person approach (15).

We have an understanding, therefore, that current research in physics supports the following ideas, all of which have rapidly and radically influenced and been confirmed by other fields of inquiry, including the cognitive sciences, psychology, social theory, and cybernetics (communications and systems theory).  These ideas are that the brain, language and people are dynamic, co-evolving, self-organizing systems with emergent properties, which thrive (grow, learn) best when they operate on the fine line dividing chaos and order, called complexity.  We refer to this critical complexity level as Range in Second Language Learning.  There are many studies that show the overall impact of MM on learning, and which indicate that multimedia maximizes learning by placing the learner into the critical complexity area.  Meta-analytical research indicates that MM increases learning over traditional methods in a variety of settings (with different age and type learners) and subjects (academic or skill based) (16) (17) (18).  Other meta-analyses indicate that MM is also more efficient and more interactive than traditional teaching/learning methods (19) (20) (21).  Since learning occurs via input and feedback of the senses, and MM can impact both visual and auditory channels, as well as provide stimulus for the parallel processing capabilities of the brain, it promotes information retrieval and associations (scaffolding – see Vygotsky (22) and increased neural activity through referential processing and redundancy (23) (24) (25).  Multimedia appears to increase learning because it can present material to the learner through a variety of modes (multi-sensory, rich input), provides for learner control and autonomy (self-regulation), and accommodates various learning styles.  These factors promote “complexity”, the necessary ingredient for maximizing learning.

In SLA, research in Methodology has been based on the 4 language skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening comprehension) and included general principles of learning theory, such as Piaget’s developmental stages and Vygotsky’s social interaction and scaffolding theories.  These, along with an understanding of the social nature of language, have resulted in an emphasis on the conditions (environment) which optimize Language Learning, namely, opportunities for interaction, authentic tasks (meaningful and varied), comprehensible input and language production (output and modified output), time and “mindfulness” (attention to form), and minimal stress or optimal anxiety (facilitative rather than debilitative) (26).  So while we may not have (or ever have) a definitive, unchangeable theory of the specifics involved in how we learn a Second Language, we do know that Language Learning involves at least 4 skills, requires appropriate (diverse and within the learner’s reach) input, appropriate circumstances to promote output (language production), feedback through interaction for the negotiation of meaning (propelled by the need for discourse), and metacognition (for self-regulation and “noticing” of form in the target language).  We also know that the learner must be motivated (pay attention) and that repetition is necessary, while a “variety of contexts” plays a primary role in acquisition.  We can look at research in MM (referred to generally as CALL – Computer Assisted Language Learning) to see whether and in what ways it meets some or all of these interacting criteria.  The more it does so, the greater “complexity” (Range) it provides for Language Learning, and the more optimal it serves as a means to SLA.

CALL has been shown to be effective in promoting social interaction and improving writing skills (27) as well as promoting a positive attitude (motivation) (28) (29).  The improved attitude and motivational effects of CALL have been documented by many researchers (30) (31).  CALL is effective in accelerating metacognition (32) and provides students with time to process and self-correct while writing (33).  CALL has also been shown to provide “meaning” and authentic tasks and advance social discourse (34) (35) while encouraging comprehensible, negotiated output (36).  It effectively promotes learner autonomy, a primary factor in motivation (37) and has been shown to improve listening comprehension (38).  CALL has been successfully utilized to promote attention to form (39).  Online references, electronic resources (research, dictionaries, and encyclopedias) create immediate feedback loops for self-correction and provide for learner autonomy (40).  Because CALL can support video and audio modes, it enhances listening through multi-sensory input and supports varied learning styles (41) (42).  E-mail exchanges follow patterns similar to direct conversation and can benefit language acquisition more than direct talk (43) (44).  Overall, CALL allows for greater variety of topics, more and better input, greater accuracy, increased interaction, and more accurate writing (45) (46).

Based on what we know about evolution, language, learning, Second Language Acquisition, and complexity, there is no doubt that multimedia can provide the critical complexity required to maximize learning and that CALL, therefore, can provide the critical Range necessary for expedient Second Language Acquisition.  This being the case, educational systems design needs to focus on components which maximize this critical Range in all language learning circumstances, with special attention devoted to balancing this Range in such a manner as to neither overload the learner (which leads to chaos) nor to overregulate the learning environment or process (which leads to order).  The next step, therefore, is to take a look at how systems theory in education can create this balance and what role the teacher has in developing and implementing effective systems for language learning in the environments within their locus of control.  Teachers are responsible for perceiving and choosing the organization of materials (patterns) most suitable for learning, for assessing which inputs might serve as catalysts leading toward “phase transition” (47) in the learning process, and in recognizing the stage in which a learner is situated in order to present appropriate feedback.  This is of tremendous import, because the medium (CALL) does not, by itself, guarantee a balance or that learning through critical complexity (Range) will occur; it is merely an excellent delivery vehicle for enhancing language learning due to its capacity to emulate complex adaptive systems.

References:

(1)        Teilhard de Chardin, P. (1959). The Phenomenon of Man. New York: Harper & Row

(2)        Kauffman, S. (1995). At Home In The Universe. New York: Oxford University Press.

(3)        Steels, L. (1997). The synthetic modeling of language origins. Evolution of Communication1(1):1-35.

(4)        Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and nature: A necessary unity. New York: Bantam Books.

(5)        Deacon Terrence: The  Symbolic Species (W.W. Norton & C., 1997)

(6)       Elman, J., Bates, E.A., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1997). Rethinking innateness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

(7)       Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

(8)       Rivers, W. Principles of Interactive Language Teaching. http://agoralang.com/rivers/10Principles_0.html, from the web on 10/25/01.

(9)       Ellis, R. (1999). Learning A Second Language Through Interaction. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing

(10)     Gardner, H. (1983).  Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences .New York: Basic Books.

(11)     Gattegno, C. (1972).  Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way, 2d ed., New York: Educational Solutions.

(12)     Krashen, S. & Terrell, T. (1983).The Natural Approach: Language acquisition in the classroom Hayward, CA: The Alemany Press. (13)  Asher, J.J. (1966). “The Learning Strategy of the Total Physical Response: A Review.” Modern Language Journal 50:79-84

(14)      G. Lozanov’s Suggestopaedia, as discussed in S. Ostrander and L. Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

(15)     Curran, C. (1972). Counseling-Learning: A Whole Person Model for Education. Apple River, IL: Apple River Press.

(16)     Khalili, A., & Shashaani, L. (1994). The effectiveness of computer applications: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 27, 48-61.

(17)     Kulik, J. A., Kulik, C. C., & Cohen, P. A. (1980). Effectiveness of computer-based college teaching: A meta-analysis of findings. Review of Educational Research, 50, 525-544.

(18)     Schmidt, M., Weinstein, T., Niemic, R., & Walberg, H. J. (1985). Computer-assisted instruction with exceptional children. Journal of Special Education, 9, 493-502.

(19)     Kulik, C. C., Kulik, J. A., & Shwalb, B. J. (1986). The effectiveness of computer-based adult education: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 2, 235-252.

(20)     Bosco, J. (1986). An analysis of evaluations of interactive video. Educational Technology, 25, 7-16.

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